What are the 5 most successful countries today?
Why Study the Industrial Revolution? All nations face problems of industrialization, such as air and water pollution, acid rain, and crowded cities. Today’s global society depends on transportation and communication that can be traced to the Industrial Revolution. Industrialized nations such as those in western Europe continue to use low-wage labor from less-industrialized nations. Socialism and communism have increasingly given way to capitalism, causing major global upheavals in places such as Russia and eastern Europe. Tensions continue between the industrialized nations of Europe and North America and less-developed nations such as those in Africa.
What is the Industrial Revolution? Industrialization: the process of developing machine production of goods. The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the mid 1700s. Before Industrial Rev: people wove textiles by hand After Industrial Rev: machines began to do this & other jobs I.R. spread from England to U.S. & continental Europe (mostly western Europe)
How do you industrialize? You need natural resources, such as: Water power & coal to fuel new machines Iron ore to construct machines, tools, & buildings Rivers for inland transportation Harbors from which merchant ships set sail And (in the 1800s) a ton of new inventions like: Reapers, telegraphs, sewing machines, telephones, steam-driven locomotives
How did Industrialization change economics? New inventions and development of factories Rapidly growing industry in the 1800s Increased production & higher demand for raw materials Growth of worldwide trade Population explosion & expanding labor force Exploitation of mineral resources Highly developed banking and investment system Advances in transportation, agriculture, and communication
How did Industrialization change society? Increase in population of cities Lack of city planning Loss of family stability Expansion of middle class Harsh conditions for laborers, including children Workers’ progress versus laissez-faire economic attitudes Improved standard of living Creation of new jobs Encouragement of technological progress
How did Industrialization change politics? Child labor laws to end abuses Reformers urging equal distribution of wealth Trade unions formed Social reform movements, such as utilitarianism, utopianism, socialism, and Marxism Reform bills in Parliament and Congress
Impact of Industrialization Rise of global inequality: gap widened between industrialized and nonindustrialized countries Industrialized countries needed raw materials from less-developed countries (making it so they could not have those materials to industrialize themselves) Industrialized countries sold their manufactured goods to nonindustrialized countries Europe and U.S. gained tremendous economic power over nonindustrialized countries in Africa & Asia
Are the countries of the United States and the Western Europe better off than the rest of the world today? EXPLAIN!