1 Sociology – Chapter 2 - Culture Miss HickeySociologyHilliard Davidson High School
2 What is culture?culture – language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and even material objects passed from one generation to the nextpenetrates deep into thinking; “taken for granted”provides implicit instructions for what to do in different situationsfundamental basis to make decisionsmoral imperatives (right way of doing things)can’t exist without culture—we all have it
3 Material Culturematerial culture – material objects that distinguish a group of peoplenothing natural about itExample: different fashions around the worldeasier to change than non-material culture
4 Non-Material Culturenon-material culture – group’s way of thinking and doingnothing naturalExample: ability to stand in a line or to push and shove way to the front of groupharder to change non-material culture than material culture
5 Culture Shockculture shock – disorientation people experience when coming in contact with a fundamentally different culturecoming into contact with radically different culture challenge our basic assumptions about lifeWhen have you experienced culture shock? What happened? How did you feel?
6 Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism ethnocentrism – use of one’s own culture to judge others in their societyall people are ethnocentricboth positive and negative consequences“One’s group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with it.” – William Sumnercultural relativism – not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own termsputting self in their (other culture’s) shoes/eyes
7 A SHORT Review: Vocabulary culturematerial culturenon-material cultureculture shockethnocentrismcultural relativism
8 Components of Symbolic Culture non-material culturegestureslanguagevaluesnormssanctionsfolkwaysmorestaboos
9 Communication gesture – communicating through the body language allows human experience to be communicativeprovides a social or shared pastprovides a social or shared futureallows shared perspectiveallows complex, shared, goal-directed behaviorSapir-Whorf Hypothesis - Language creates ways of thinking (Edward Sapir and Ben Whorf)
10 Values, Norms and Sanctions norm – rules of behaviorsanction – approval or disapproval for violation of normspositive sanctions – a reward or positive reaction for following normsExamples: material success, prize, trophy, money, hugs, smiles, thumbs up!negative sanction – negative expression of disproval for breaking a normExamples: harsh words or gesture, frowning, staring, violence, prison
11 Values in U.S. Society achievement freedom success democracy individualismequalityactivityeducationworkreligiosityscience and technologyromantic loveprogressracism/group superiority (contradiction)material comforthumanitarianism
12 Emerging U.S. Values leisure self-fulfillment physical fitness youthfulnessconcern for the environment
13 Folkway, More, Taboo folkway – norms that are not strictly enforced Example: breaking speed limitmore – strictly enforced normsExample: murdertaboo – extremely strong norm; a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violatedExample: incest
14 Subculture vs. Counterculture pluralistic society – a society made up of many different groupssubculture – the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguishes its members from the larger culture: world within a worldethnic subculture – values, norms, food, religion, language and clothing set them apartprofessional subcultures – doctors, engineers, teacher, police officers, etc. all have own vocabulary, values, etc.counterculture – a group whose values, beliefs and elated behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
15 Values value cluster – values that fit together to form a larger whole value contradiction – values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the otherExample: pro-life and pro-death penaltyideal culture – the ideal values and norms of a people; the goals held out for themreal culture – the norms and values that people actually followDo you hold any value contradictions? Why? Why do you think people throughout history have held value contradictions?
16 Cultural Universalscultural universals – values, norms, or other cultural trains that are found everywhereGeorge MurdockThe specific customs differ from one group to anotherCustoms found were courtship, marriage, funerals, games, laws, music, myths, incest taboos and toilet training.Sociobiology – a framework of thought that views human behavior as the result of natural selection and considers biological factors to be the fundamental cause
17 Technology in the Global Village narrow sense: toolsbroader sense: skills or procedures necessary to make and use those toolsnew technology – the emerging technology of an era that have a significant impact on social lifetechnology sets the framework for a groups non-material culture
18 William Ogburncultural lag – human lagging behind technological innovationsa groups material culture usually changes first, with the non-material culture lagging behind
19 Diffusion and Leveling cultural diffusion – the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to anothercultural leveling – the cultures become similar to one anotherExample: U.S. culture being exported and diffused into other nations
20 A SHORT Time to Ponder Why is culture not universal? How has technology changed in your lifetime in ways that impact culture?How do you think technology will change in the future, and how will those changes impact society?What are some examples of cultural lag?