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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTERS 12 AND 13 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE SOUTHERN ECONOMY (1790-1860)"— Presentation transcript:


2 CHAPTER 12 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN AMERICA Industrial Revolution = a period of rapid growth in using machines for manufacturing and production that began in the mid- 1700s Changes were needed in manufacturing during the mid-1700s Demand was greater than the available supply of goods

3 WATER FRAME Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769 The device change how textiles (cloth items) were made Since it used flowing water as a power source, factories were built near rivers It lowered the cost of cotton cloth and increased the speed of textile production

4 SAMUEL SLATER Skilled British mechanic It was illegal for skilled mechanics to leave England with machine plans Immigrated to the after carefully memorizing the designs of textile mills He was responsible for having new and improved textile mills constructed in America

5 AMERICAN TEXTILE MILLS Most textile mills (factories) were built in the North, especially in the Northeast and New England Merchants had more money to invest in the North and there were many rivers and streams to supply power

6 ELI WHITNEY In the 1790s, America was worried about a possible war with France It took too long to make weapons by hand, so factories needed better technology (tools used to produce items or to do work) 1798 – Eli Whitney invented interchangeable parts Interchangeable parts = parts of a machine that are identical ◦ This made machines easier to assemble and broken parts easier to replace Mass production = the efficient production of large numbers of identical goods

7 RHODE ISLAND SYSTEM Samuel Slater’s strategy of hiring families and diving work into simple tasks Textile manufacturers kept costs down and profits high by hiring children and paying them very little

8 FRANCIS CABOT LOWELL Businessman from New England Lowell System = based on water-powered textile mills that employed young, unmarried women from local farms His system allowed women the opportunity to earn better wages than most available jobs A typical “Lowell girl” stayed at the mills for 4 years Mill working days were 12 to 14 hours long and the conditions were unsafe Mill workers suffered from chronic cough


10 TRADE UNIONS Trade unions were organizations of workers who tried to improve pay and working conditions for members Some labor unions staged strikes – workers on strike refuse to work until employers meet their demands Early strikes were unsuccessful because the courts and the police did not take the side of the unions

11 TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION This was a period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel New forms of travel that were invented were the steam-powered train and the steamboat This revolution allowed goods to travel quickly across the United States 1803 – Robert Fulton created the Clermont, which was the first, full- sized commercial steamboat Steamboats traveled well upstream on rivers


13 AMERICAN RAILROADS Steam-powered trains (locomotives) allowed manufacturers and farmers to send their goods to distant markets By 1860, 30,000 miles of railroad linked almost every major city in the U.S. The economy surged (boomed) as a result Trains traveled faster than most people had ever gone before, so they made a tremendous impact on passengers Some challenges were building railroads that passed through mountains and rivers

14 NEW FUEL AND METAL Coal replaced wood as a fuel source because it produced more energy Steel was stronger than iron, so it was used to build factories, machines, and railroad tracks Steel was made by a process called smelting – heating iron ore to very high temperatures

15 NEW INVENTIONS 1832 – Samuel Morse perfected the telegraph - a device that could send information over wires across great distances and from coast to coast Alfred Lewis Vail (Morse’s partner) developed Morse Code - system of different combinations of dots and dashes represented letters 1860 – Isaac Singer’s company was the world’s largest maker of sewing machines Mechanical reaper and the plow allowed farmers to plant and harvest huge crop fields 1830s – icebox stored fresh food longer Iron cookstoves replaced stone hearths Companies started to mass produce earlier inventions so families could buy items they could not afford in the past


17 STEAM POWER AND NEW FACTORIES The shift to steam power meant that factories no longer had to be built by streams, rivers, and waterfalls Mid-1800s – most of America’s industry was located in the Northeast Companies built factories closer to cities and transportation centers to provide easier access to workers

18 CHAPTER 13 REVIVING THE SOUTH’S ECONOMY After the American Revolution, the prices of tobacco, rice, and indigo dropped As a result, the demand and price of slaves dropped Eli Whitney’s cotton gin greatly increased the demand for slave labor

19 COTTON GIN Eli Whitney patented this machine in 1793 Cotton gin = machine that used a hand-cranked cylinder with wire teeth to pull cotton fibers from the green seeds This machine made the separation process much faster and efficient


21 COTTON BOOM Cotton boom = cotton became very profitable, and demand for slaves increased; more slaves were needed to operate cotton gins Southern cotton planters relied on rivers to ship goods because of the lack of roads in the South

22 COTTON BELT Cotton belt = an area stretching from South Carolina to Texas that grew most of the country’s cotton crop By1840, the U.S. was producing more than half of the cotton grown in the entire world

23 CROP ROTATION Crop rotation = changing the type of plant grown on a given plot of land each year in order to protect the land from mineral loss Some types of crops = rice, sweet potatoes, wheat, sugarcane, tobacco

24 SLAVERY IN THE U.S. (EARLY 1800s) Domestic (inside the U.S.) slave trade increased in the early 1800s because Congress banned importation of slaves into the country (could not get slaves from other countries) During the first half of the 1800s, one-third of white southern families had slaves Wealthy white southerners argued that God created some people to rule over others (religious justification) Life was similar in both southern cities and on plantations because slaves did most of the work

25 FREE AFRICAN-AMERICANS By 1860, more than 250,000 free African-Americans lived in the South During the 1860s, many free African-Americans were descendants of refugees from the Haitian Revolution or slaves freed after the American Revolution Many southern states and cities passed laws to limit the rights of freed slaves because southern citizens feared they would try to encourage slave rebellions Free African-Americans could engage in business transactions during the 1860s

26 SLAVE SYSTEM Planter = large-scale farmers who held more than 20 slaves Plantation = large farm that usually specialized in growing one type of crop for profit Slaves who worked in a planter’s house usually had better food, clothing, and shelter, as opposed to those working on plantations Gang-labor system = planters had all field hands focused on the same task at the same time Skilled slaves could earn money to buy freedom

27 LIFE UNDER SLAVERY Most planters encouraged slave obedience through physical punishments, such as whippings or wearing iron chains while working Slaves lived in poor conditions, such as dirt-floor cabins with leaky roofs and few furnishings Slave codes = strict state laws that controlled the actions of slaves Many slaves were uneducated because it was illegal to teach them literacy under these slave codes

28 NAT TURNER’S REBELLION 1831 – this was the most violent slave revolt in U.S. history Nat Turner believed he was on a mission from God to free slaves by killing slaveholders His rebels killed 60 white people 100 innocent slaves were killed Turner was executed on November 11, 1831 Slave codes were toughened as a result of this uprising


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