2 Chapter Outline Are the Sexes Separate and Unequal? What Produces Gender Inequality?Gender-Role SocializationGender Inequality and Work
3 Sex and GenderSex The physical and biological differences between men and women. Gender The social, psychological, and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity that are based on the previous biological distinctions.
4 QuestionThe physical and biological differences between men and women is referred to as:gender.sex.sex role.gender role.
5 Answer: BThe physical and biological differences between men and women is referred to as sex.
6 QuestionIf you could temporarily be the other gender, how long would you like to do so?One dayOne weekI have no desire to be the other gender
7 Gender and Disease Heart Attack Men are more likely to suffer heart attacks.More women than men die each year from heart disease.CancerCancers are the 2nd leading cause of death for women. Women smokers are 20% to 70% more likely than men to develop lung cancer.HIV/AIDSWomen are ten times more likely then men to contract HIV during unprotected sex with an infected partner.
8 Gender and DiseaseCardiovascular Disease1 in 9 women ages 45–64 has some cardiovascular disease, rising to 1 in 3 at age 65 and older.Diabetes and Other Chronic IllnessesDiabetes is a cause of increased mortality among minority women, especially among middle-aged and older American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, and African-American women.Osteoporosis80% of people with osteoporosis are women; more than half of women over 65 are afflicted with it.
9 Gender and DiseaseImmunologic DiseasesAutoimmune thyroid diseases have a 15:1 ratio of women to men. Rheumatoid arthritis has a 3:1 ratio of women to men.Mental DisordersWomen are twice as likely as men to be depressed and 2 to 3 times more prone to anxiety disorders.
10 Gender and Disease Alzheimer’s Disease The incidence is higher among women, and it increases dramatically after age 85.Visual and Hearing ImpairmentsMen have nearly a 50% greater likelihood of experiencing these problems.
11 Responses to StressGender differences influence the way men and women react to stress.When primitive man was threatened by wild animals while hunting, testosterone combined with adrenaline enabled him to react quickly to danger.When women are confronted by stress, they tend to respond by seeking out contact and support from others.
12 The Functionalist Viewpoint Functionalists argue that it was useful to have men and women fulfill different roles in Preindustrial societies.Because women spent their time near the home, they prepared food, cleaned, etc.To the male fell the duties of hunting, defending the family, and herding.
13 The Conflict Theory Viewpoint According to conflict theory, males dominate females because of their power and control over key resources.By subordinating women, men gain greater economic, political, and social power.Conflict theorists believe the main source of gender inequality is the economic inequality between men and women.
14 Gender-role Socialization A lifelong process whereby people learn the values, attitudes, motivations, and behavior considered appropriate to each sex according to their culture.In any society males and females are socialized differently.
15 QuestionHow comfortable are you with the gender roles our society defines as appropriate for males and females?Very comfortableSomewhat comfortableUnsureSomewhat uncomfortableVery uncomfortable
16 Maines and Hardesty: Men’s Linear, Temporal World When men project what the future might hold for them, they define it in terms of career accomplishments.Men don’t view a family as much of an issue in terms of pursuing career goals.Men see little problem in coordinating career and family demands.Many expect to have a traditional division of labor in their families, which will support their career pursuit.
17 Maines and Hardesty: Women’s Contingent, Temporal World Work, education, and family all are seen as having to be balanced against one another.Careers are seen as pursuits that may have to be suspended or halted at certain points.The vast majority of women envision problems in their careers and see family responsibilities as a major issue.Instead of having a clear vision of the steps to accomplish career goals, women are more tentative about their future.
18 Question In comparison to working men, working women: consistently earn less.are less likely to be in unions.are more likely to occupy low-paying jobs.all of these choices are correct.
19 Answer: DIn comparison to working men, working women consistently earn less, are less likely to be in unions, and are more likely to occupy low-paying jobs.
20 Job DiscriminationIn 2004, more than 59% of all American women were part of the paid labor force.The median income for men in 2004 was $60,093, and for women it was, $42,307.Male managers and professionals earned $53,976 in 2001, compared with $38,064 for females.Male technical sales workers earned $34,684, while females earned $24,596.
21 Professions That Are Disproportionately Male and Female Disproportionately Female% FemaleAutomobile Mechanics98.9SecretariesCarpenters98.3Dental Hygienists98.5Airplane Pilots96.3Receptionists96.7Truck Drivers95.3Speech Therapists93.5Firefighters96.2Bank Tellers90.0
22 Professions That Are Disproportionately Male and Female Disproportionately Female% FemaleMechanical Engineers93.7Dietitians89.9Forestry and Logging91.6Librarians85.2Police Detectives87.9Elementary Teachers83.3Architects76.5Health Aides82.6Programmers73.5Special Education Teachers
23 QuestionIf you were taking a new job and had your choice of a boss, would you prefer to work for a man or a woman?ManWomanNo preference
24 Advanced Degrees Awarded to Women, 1970 and 2002
25 Three Ways Women Experience Discrimination in the Business World The hiring process, when women are given jobs with lower prestige than men with equivalent qualifications.Through unequal wage policies, by which women receive less pay than men for equivalent work.In awarding promotions, as women find it more difficult than men to advance up the career ladder.
26 Recent Improvements in Women's Earnings In 2001, women held nearly 49.5% of all executive, administrative, and managerial jobs, up from 34.2% in 1983.In 1998, women were:56.1% of people awarded bachelor’s degrees57.1% of those awarded master’s degrees42% of the doctorate recipients41% of the of those receiving M.D.s43.9% of those receiving law degrees
28 1. Gender is defined as:the physical differences between men and women.the social, psychological, and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity.the ascribed status that accompanies gender roles.the differences that are biological in nature.
29 Answer: BGender is defined as the social, psychological, and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity.
30 2. The process of learning the values, attitudes and behavior appropriate to each sex in one's own culture is known as:gender-role socialization.childhood socialization.adolescent socialization.resocialization.
31 Answer: A2. The process of learning the values, attitudes and behavior appropriate to each sex in one's own culture is known as gender-role socialization.
32 3. The process of learning the values, attitudes and behavior appropriate to each sex in one's own culture is known as:gender-role socialization.childhood socialization.adolescent socialization.resocialization.
33 Answer: AThe process of learning the values, attitudes and behavior appropriate to each sex in one's own culture is known as gender-role socialization.