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COMMUNICATION MODEL The way we Communicate What is Communication? The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings.

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Presentation on theme: "COMMUNICATION MODEL The way we Communicate What is Communication? The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings."— Presentation transcript:


2 COMMUNICATION MODEL The way we Communicate

3 What is Communication? The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings.

4 Elements of the Model n Sender - Speaker n Receiver - Listener n Messages n Feedback n Encoding n Decoding n Interference

5 Two kinds of Messages n Verbal - using words –volume –tone n Non-Verbal –appearance –gestures –body movement –eye contact –spatial relations

6 What is Feedback? n Reaction of the receiver to the sender’s message. n Tells the sender how to send the next message.

7 Encoding n How the sender decides to send the messages based on PREDICTIONS or prior knowledge about the receiver

8 Decoding n Applying meaning and understanding the message that has been sent

9 Interference n External –outside influences that affect communication –noisy room; airplane overhead n Internal –inside influences that affect communication –prejudices; anxiety; worry

10 Channels of Communication n Channels are the senses you use in communication n Hear n See n Touch

11 Levels of Information (Encoding = Predicting reactions) n Cultural - Little info. About receiver n Sociological - Some general info. About the receiver. n Individual - Personal knowledge of the receiver.

12 Purposes of Communication n General –Social Contact –Self-Esteem –Gain & Share knowledge n Specific –Exchange Info. –Exerting Control –Following Social rules –Sharing Feelings

13 What is Perception? n Process of filtering and interpreting what your senses tell you so you can create a meaningful picture of the world.

14 Steps in Perception n Something affects the senses –see, hear, taste, smell, touch n interpret the sensation (give meaning to it)

15 Differences in Perception come from: n Physical Differences n Past Experiences; background

16 Differences in perception come from: n Present feelings; circumstances n Differences in using information

17 Differences in Perception come from: n Differences in expectations

18 Verbal Communication n Uses words: symbols that represent things but are not the things themselves. n Why language changes: the world is changing. New ideas and inventions need words to describe them.

19 Meanings of Words n Denotative Meaning---definition found in the dictionary n Connotative Meaning---everyday meaning; emotional or personal response to a word

20 Kinds of Language n Technical--area specific language; mechanic n Regional---specific to geographic area; soda vs. pop n Slang---phat n Cultural--specific to particular religious or ethnic group; barmitzvah

21 Verbal Strategies that affect communication n Exclude n Include n Put Down n Build Up n Reveal Self n Conceal Self n All of these verbal strategies are similar to the nonverbal strategies

22 Nonverbal Communication n Sending and Receiving messages without the use of words. Involves: appearance, gestures, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, spatial relations, and time.

23 Most communication is NONVERBAL

24 Nonverbal Communication n Intentional - using nonverbal techniques to support verbal message(s) n Accidental - nonverbal messages sent that the sender is unaware of but still communicate a message. Can contradict verbals

25 Never say anything that cannot improve upon silence

26 Vocal Cues as Nonverbals n Pitch---the highness or lowness of voice n Rate---how slowly or quickly a person talks n Volume---loudness or softness of voice n Quality---sound of the voice

27 Nonverbals Can: n Repeat n support n contradict n replace n regulate

28 Spatial Relations n Intimate space---up to 1 1/2 feet; hugging, telling secrets n Personal space---1 1/2 to 4 feet; quiet conversation n Social space---4 to 12 feet; group discussions n Public space---over 12 feet; calling or waving

29 Listening Accurate Receiving

30 Hearing vs. Listening n Hearing - physical ability to pick up sound waves. n Listening - 4 steps –hear –interpret –understand –recall

31 Barriers to Listening n Internal Distractions n External Distractions n Personal Biases n Conflicting Demands

32 Active Listening: Stay Tuned In

33 Most people would rather TALK than LISTEN

34 n We understand 450 words per minute! n We speak only 175 words per minute. n How can we stay focused during the “wasted” time?

35 Staying Tuned in: Active Listening n Read nonverbals n Avoid distractions

36 Staying Tuned In: Active Listening n Apply the ideas to yourself n Paraphrase n Know your effect on the sender

37 You can never NOT communicate

38 Self-Concept n Beliefs about who you are based on perceptions, expectations, and others’ reactions n Formed early in life n Static---Hard to change

39 Self Concept and Self-Efficacy n Those with poor self-concept will complete tasks that are too EASY or too HARD n Self-efficacy is your belief on what you can do


41 What you need to know for the test!!!

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