What is Communication? The process of sending and reviewing messages to share meanings.
Elements of the Model n Sender - Speaker n Receiver - Listener n Messages n Feedback n Encoding n Decoding n Interference
Two kinds of Messages n Verbal - using words –volume –tone n Non-Verbal –appearance –gestures –body movement –eye contact –spatial relations
What is Feedback? n Reaction of the receiver to the sender’s message. n Tells the sender how to send the next message.
Encoding n How the sender decides to send the messages based on PREDICTIONS or prior knowledge about the receiver
Decoding n Applying meaning and understanding the message that has been sent
Interference n External –outside influences that affect communication –noisy room; airplane overhead n Internal –inside influences that affect communication –prejudices; anxiety; worry
Channels of Communication n Channels are the senses you use in communication n Hear n See n Touch
Levels of Information (Encoding = Predicting reactions) n Cultural - Little info. About receiver n Sociological - Some general info. About the receiver. n Individual - Personal knowledge of the receiver.
Purposes of Communication n General –Social Contact –Self-Esteem –Gain & Share knowledge n Specific –Exchange Info. –Exerting Control –Following Social rules –Sharing Feelings
What is Perception? n Process of filtering and interpreting what your senses tell you so you can create a meaningful picture of the world.
Steps in Perception n Something affects the senses –see, hear, taste, smell, touch n interpret the sensation (give meaning to it)
Differences in Perception come from: n Physical Differences n Past Experiences; background
Differences in perception come from: n Present feelings; circumstances n Differences in using information
Differences in Perception come from: n Differences in expectations
Verbal Communication n Uses words: symbols that represent things but are not the things themselves. n Why language changes: the world is changing. New ideas and inventions need words to describe them.
Meanings of Words n Denotative Meaning---definition found in the dictionary n Connotative Meaning---everyday meaning; emotional or personal response to a word
Kinds of Language n Technical--area specific language; mechanic n Regional---specific to geographic area; soda vs. pop n Slang---phat n Cultural--specific to particular religious or ethnic group; barmitzvah
Verbal Strategies that affect communication n Exclude n Include n Put Down n Build Up n Reveal Self n Conceal Self n All of these verbal strategies are similar to the nonverbal strategies
Nonverbal Communication n Sending and Receiving messages without the use of words. Involves: appearance, gestures, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, spatial relations, and time.
Nonverbal Communication n Intentional - using nonverbal techniques to support verbal message(s) n Accidental - nonverbal messages sent that the sender is unaware of but still communicate a message. Can contradict verbals
Never say anything that cannot improve upon silence
Vocal Cues as Nonverbals n Pitch---the highness or lowness of voice n Rate---how slowly or quickly a person talks n Volume---loudness or softness of voice n Quality---sound of the voice
Nonverbals Can: n Repeat n support n contradict n replace n regulate
Spatial Relations n Intimate space---up to 1 1/2 feet; hugging, telling secrets n Personal space---1 1/2 to 4 feet; quiet conversation n Social space---4 to 12 feet; group discussions n Public space---over 12 feet; calling or waving