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Presentation on theme: "COMMUNICATION DYNAMICS AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT"— Presentation transcript:

Olusola O. Isola, Ph.D Peace and Conflict Studies Program Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Phone: 4/20/2017

2 Introduction Communication is crucial to every human interactions
Most of the time, ineffective communication is at the root of conflicts Good communication leads to good interaction and progress, while poor communication could lead to poor performance and even violence in communities 4/20/2017

3 So, what is communication
It is basically the sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups in order to reach a common understanding Efficiency, quality, responsiveness to others and innovations can only be achieved through good communication Improvement in quality of life and social interactions can also be achieved through good communication Productivity can be enhanced through good communication in communities and places of work 4/20/2017

4 Forms of Communication
Communication consist of verbal and non-verbal forms Non-verbal communication includes gestures, sounds, facial expressions, signs, spatial relationships, etc. Both verbal and non-verbal forms are capable of sending strong messages Efficient communication occur when both verbal and non-verbal forms are combined 4/20/2017

5 The communication process
The Elements of communication includes the sender, the message, the medium and the receiver Defects in any of the elements can lead to conflict Conflict management and conflict resolution depends largely on the effectiveness of communication at every of the stages 4/20/2017

6 Communication Model Transmission Phase Noise Feedback Phase Message
Encoding Medium Decoding Receiver Sender Decoding Medium Encoding Message 4/20/2017

7 Sender – Originator of messages
The communication process consists of two phases – The Transmission phase and the Feedback phase Sender – Originator of messages Receiver – The one who receives the message Medium – The channel through which information is passed Noise – Any interference that is capable of disturbing any of the communication stages Types of Noise- Mechanical, Physical and Psychological It is the responsibility of those involved in communication to ensure the elimination or reduction of noise in the communication process 4/20/2017

8 Nexus between noise and conflicts
Noise interfering with any of the communication process or elements is often the cause of conflicts because it is capable of causing misunderstanding Noise can emerge in forms of language differences, differing perceptions, emotional disturbances etc. 4/20/2017

9 Perception, communication and conflict management
Perception plays an important role in every communication. Both the sender and the receiver are influenced by their perception and wrong perception can lead to conflict Perception is the process through which people select, organize and interpret sensory inputs to give meaning and order to the world around them Perception is influenced by types of individual personalities, value systems, attitudes, moods, experiences, etc. 4/20/2017

10 Perceptions are naturally subjective
Perceptions are naturally subjective. They influence every communication For a successful negotiation and mediation to take place, perceptions must be managed to be free of Biases and Stereotypes Biases are systematic tendencies to use information about others in ways that could result in in-accurate perception Stereotypes are simplified and often in-accurate beliefs about the characteristics of particular groups of people. Biases and stereotypes can lead to ineffective communication and conflicts if left unmanaged 4/20/2017

11 Ways to Ensure Accurate Perception
Try to be open to other points of view Do not be afraid to change your views about a person, an issue or an event Seek out the opinions of others who have had different kinds of experiences apart from yours Try to examine your perception if you have made a faulty decision 4/20/2017

12 Communication Skills for Conflict Management
It is important to learn how to develop one’’s communication skills to avoid barriers to effective communication during conflict negotiation or mediation Such barriers could originate from both the senders and the receivers of information and it could hamper understanding It is also important to learn to select appropriate medium for effective communication to take place. 4/20/2017

13 Communication Skills for Senders
Send clear and complete message. A message is clear when it is easy to understand and interpret Learn to anticipate how receivers will interpret the message and adjust appropriately Encode messages in symbols that the receiver understands. Use simple languages and avoid jargons 4/20/2017

14 Select a medium appropriate for the message
Select a medium that the receiver monitors. Learn if the receiver have any disability that could hamper understanding Include a feedback mechanism. This could be in form of asking for responses Provide accurate information in order to avoid rumour within your system. 4/20/2017

15 Communication Skills for Receivers
Pay adequate attention to the subject matter and avoid distractions Be a good listener. Ask questions, maintain eye contacts, refrain from interrupting the sender Restate or paraphrase statements in simpler ways and simpler words Be empathetic. Try to understand how the sender feels and interpret from his perspective. 4/20/2017

16 Active Listening The capacity to develop active listening skill is crucial for conflict management Don’t interject when anyone is talking Never ridicule or be sarcastic about someone else’s comments Try to maintain eye contact with the individual who is trying to pass a message across Pay attention to non-verbal gestures 4/20/2017

17 The “Dos” of Managing Conflict Mediation
Focus attention on the speakers Repeat back in your own words for clarifications Restate important thoughts and feelings Ask questions to make issues clearer or to get more information Summarize facts and feelings Stay neutral while mediating in a conflict 4/20/2017

18 The “Don’ts” of Managing Conflict Mediation
Don’t talk about yourself or be critical of the conflict parties Don’t ignore the facts and feelings of participants Don’t be a poor listener with your voice, eyes and body Don’t deny participants adequate chance to express themselves Don’t take sides during discussions 4/20/2017

19 Thank You for Your Attention


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