Presentation on theme: "Deviance and Social Control Essential Questions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Deviance and Social Control Essential Questions 7.1-7.3 What are the nature and social functions of deviance?What effects are identified because of the nature and social functions of deviance?How do the previously proposed sociological theories compare when asked to explain deviance?
2 Key Terms Deviance Stigma Strain Theory Anomie Control Theory NegativePositiveDeviantStigmaStrain TheoryAnomieControl TheoryCultural Transmission TheoryLabeling TheoryPrimary DevianceSecondary DevianceDegradation Ceremony
3 Deviance Behavior that violates significant social norms. Examples to consider/debate:Continuously talking to oneself in publicDrag racing on a street or highwayUsing illegal drugsA man wearing women’s clothingAttacking another person with a weaponA Deviant is one who breaks significant societal or group normsCould this definition “deviate” depending on perspective? Can you edit the definition?
4 Negative and Positive Deviance N.D.: Behavior that under-conforms to accepted normsPeople reject, misinterpret, or are unaware of societal normsP.D.: Over-conforms to societal norms and creates imbalance and extremes of perfectionismIdolization of group norms“Skinny” models create the “ideal,” but unattainable goal of perfection
5 Nature of DevianceEvery society/culture has countless norms which govern behavior.Violations are inevitable and unavoidable.NOT all norm violations are considered deviant.Examples?Social Control: ways to promote conformity to normsAll societies promote order and stability (written and unwritten laws)Internal and External Social Control:IC: Developed during socialization process. You KNOW what is right or wrongEC: Based on reward or punishment (Social Sanctions) and encourages conformity
6 The Social Functions of Deviance: Promoting Social Change Deviance can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas.When large numbers of people violate a particular norm it is often an indication that something in society needs to be changed.
7 A Deviation from the Text’s Definition of Positive Deviance
8 A PD Movement!!! http://www.plexusinstitute.org/?page=pd
9 Cultural Deviance and Repetition Perception of deviance can vary from society to society.Divorce is legal in the USDivorce is illegal in the PhilippinesTypically repeating an offense can label you as a “deviant.”Two components required to label you as deviant.You must be committing a deviant actYou must be stigmatized by society.
10 Deviant Crimes It’s All Perspective, or not? Activity: What crimes today do people consider most severe? Working alone, make a list of the five crimes you consider the MOST deviant, with the first item the most deviant.Next, assign a punishment for each crime. Does the crime warrant the death penalty, life imprisonment, a few years in jail, or a warning? You decide.Next, working in your groups, agree on a new list, ranking, and punishment scale. You must reach a consensus.Finally, each group will compare results. What have you learned about the difficulty in reaching agreement on the sensitive topic of deviance?
11 StigmaThe mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society.Used as a form of social control throughout history.Examples?
14 The Social Functions of Deviance Deviance has some uses in social life. Emile DurkheimHelps to clarify norms, unify the group, diffuse tension, and promote social change.Helps to create jobs, such as law enforcement.Deviance serves to define the boundaries of acceptable behavior.When rules are broken we are reminded of the norms that guide social life.Punishment serves as a reminder that certain behaviors will not be tolerated by society.Deviance draws the line between conforming members of society and “outsiders”, or the non-conforming members.Reinforces the sense of community and the belief in shared values.
15 Functionalist Perspective The major functionalist explanation, strain theory was developed by sociologist Robert K. Merton.Strain Theory: views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society.Four Deviant Responses: Modes of AdaptationInnovation: accepts goal but uses illegal means to reach normRitualism: rejects goal and uses illegal means to reach norm (can you say worksheet!)Retreatism: both legit and approved goals rejectedRebellion: reject success and means of achievment for societal change.Anomie – the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear and no longer applicable.Under the strain of incompatible goals and means, individuals fall victim to anomie.
17 Conflict PerspectiveCompetition and social inequality lead to deviance.There are those with power (Ruling Class) and those without (Lower Classes)Ruling Class commits acts of deviance to maintain their power.Lower Class commits acts of deviance to gain economic means or b/c of feelings of powerlessness.
18 Interactionist Perspective Interactionists offer three major explanations of deviance:Control TheoryCultural Transmission TheoryLabeling TheoryInteractionists are more interested in the individual and the thoughts and feelings of that individual.
19 Control TheoryControl Theorists are more interested in why the person conforms rather than the causes of deviance.Looks at the social ties that are integrated into a community.Strong Communities have less acts of deviance.Weaker Communities have more acts of deviance.
20 Cultural Transmission Theory This theory explains that deviance is a learned behavior through socialization.The interaction of deviant individuals and others is more likely to cause deviant behavior.The norms being taught are deviant.
21 Labeling TheoryInstead of focusing on why people perform deviant acts, labeling theory focuses on how individuals come to be identified as deviant.Deviance is labeled in two waysPrimary DevianceNonconformity – goes undetected in society. Not Deviant.Secondary DevianceResults in the individual being labeled as Deviant…and accepting the label as true.
22 Degradation Ceremony The process of labeling an individual as deviant. Public Setting – The individual is denounced, found guilty, and given the new identity of deviant.People begin to judge practically all of his or her actions in light of the deviant label.Deviant becomes the persons master status.
23 Explaining Deviance Perspective Theory Questions Functionalist Strain How do individuals respond to culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving them?ConflictWhat is the result of competition and social inequality? (Deviance) Who decides what is deviant. (Ruling Classes)InteractionistControlWhy do people conform to norms? (The strength of social ties determines conformity.)Cultural TransmissionHow do people learn conformity or deviance? (Through socialization, or interaction with others) Where does this learning mainly occur? (Primary Groups)LabelingHow do people become identified as deviant? (Through secondary deviance, or being labeled as deviant)