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Deviance and Social Control Essential Questions

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1 Deviance and Social Control Essential Questions 7.1-7.3
What are the nature and social functions of deviance? What effects are identified because of the nature and social functions of deviance? How do the previously proposed sociological theories compare when asked to explain deviance?

2 Key Terms Deviance Stigma Strain Theory Anomie Control Theory
Negative Positive Deviant Stigma Strain Theory Anomie Control Theory Cultural Transmission Theory Labeling Theory Primary Deviance Secondary Deviance Degradation Ceremony

3 Deviance Behavior that violates significant social norms.
Examples to consider/debate: Continuously talking to oneself in public Drag racing on a street or highway Using illegal drugs A man wearing women’s clothing Attacking another person with a weapon A Deviant is one who breaks significant societal or group norms Could this definition “deviate” depending on perspective? Can you edit the definition?

4 Negative and Positive Deviance
N.D.: Behavior that under-conforms to accepted norms People reject, misinterpret, or are unaware of societal norms P.D.: Over-conforms to societal norms and creates imbalance and extremes of perfectionism Idolization of group norms “Skinny” models create the “ideal,” but unattainable goal of perfection

5 Nature of Deviance Every society/culture has countless norms which govern behavior. Violations are inevitable and unavoidable. NOT all norm violations are considered deviant. Examples? Social Control: ways to promote conformity to norms All societies promote order and stability (written and unwritten laws) Internal and External Social Control: IC: Developed during socialization process. You KNOW what is right or wrong EC: Based on reward or punishment (Social Sanctions) and encourages conformity

6 The Social Functions of Deviance: Promoting Social Change
Deviance can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas. When large numbers of people violate a particular norm it is often an indication that something in society needs to be changed.

7 A Deviation from the Text’s Definition of Positive Deviance

8 A PD Movement!!!

9 Cultural Deviance and Repetition
Perception of deviance can vary from society to society. Divorce is legal in the US Divorce is illegal in the Philippines Typically repeating an offense can label you as a “deviant.” Two components required to label you as deviant. You must be committing a deviant act You must be stigmatized by society.

10 Deviant Crimes It’s All Perspective, or not?
Activity: What crimes today do people consider most severe? Working alone, make a list of the five crimes you consider the MOST deviant, with the first item the most deviant. Next, assign a punishment for each crime. Does the crime warrant the death penalty, life imprisonment, a few years in jail, or a warning? You decide. Next, working in your groups, agree on a new list, ranking, and punishment scale. You must reach a consensus. Finally, each group will compare results. What have you learned about the difficulty in reaching agreement on the sensitive topic of deviance?

11 Stigma The mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society. Used as a form of social control throughout history. Examples?

12 Stigmas

13 Stigmas?

14 The Social Functions of Deviance
Deviance has some uses in social life. Emile Durkheim Helps to clarify norms, unify the group, diffuse tension, and promote social change. Helps to create jobs, such as law enforcement. Deviance serves to define the boundaries of acceptable behavior. When rules are broken we are reminded of the norms that guide social life. Punishment serves as a reminder that certain behaviors will not be tolerated by society. Deviance draws the line between conforming members of society and “outsiders”, or the non-conforming members. Reinforces the sense of community and the belief in shared values.

15 Functionalist Perspective
The major functionalist explanation, strain theory was developed by sociologist Robert K. Merton. Strain Theory: views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society. Four Deviant Responses: Modes of Adaptation Innovation: accepts goal but uses illegal means to reach norm Ritualism: rejects goal and uses illegal means to reach norm (can you say worksheet!) Retreatism: both legit and approved goals rejected Rebellion: reject success and means of achievment for societal change. Anomie – the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear and no longer applicable. Under the strain of incompatible goals and means, individuals fall victim to anomie.


17 Conflict Perspective Competition and social inequality lead to deviance. There are those with power (Ruling Class) and those without (Lower Classes) Ruling Class commits acts of deviance to maintain their power. Lower Class commits acts of deviance to gain economic means or b/c of feelings of powerlessness.

18 Interactionist Perspective
Interactionists offer three major explanations of deviance: Control Theory Cultural Transmission Theory Labeling Theory Interactionists are more interested in the individual and the thoughts and feelings of that individual.

19 Control Theory Control Theorists are more interested in why the person conforms rather than the causes of deviance. Looks at the social ties that are integrated into a community. Strong Communities have less acts of deviance. Weaker Communities have more acts of deviance.

20 Cultural Transmission Theory
This theory explains that deviance is a learned behavior through socialization. The interaction of deviant individuals and others is more likely to cause deviant behavior. The norms being taught are deviant.

21 Labeling Theory Instead of focusing on why people perform deviant acts, labeling theory focuses on how individuals come to be identified as deviant. Deviance is labeled in two ways Primary Deviance Nonconformity – goes undetected in society. Not Deviant. Secondary Deviance Results in the individual being labeled as Deviant…and accepting the label as true.

22 Degradation Ceremony The process of labeling an individual as deviant.
Public Setting – The individual is denounced, found guilty, and given the new identity of deviant. People begin to judge practically all of his or her actions in light of the deviant label. Deviant becomes the persons master status.

23 Explaining Deviance Perspective Theory Questions Functionalist Strain
How do individuals respond to culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving them? Conflict What is the result of competition and social inequality? (Deviance) Who decides what is deviant. (Ruling Classes) Interactionist Control Why do people conform to norms? (The strength of social ties determines conformity.) Cultural Transmission How do people learn conformity or deviance? (Through socialization, or interaction with others) Where does this learning mainly occur? (Primary Groups) Labeling How do people become identified as deviant? (Through secondary deviance, or being labeled as deviant)

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