Presentation on theme: "Unit 7. Deviance – behavior that differs from social norms. Not all people agree on social norms, therefore not all people agree what types of behavior."— Presentation transcript:
Deviance – behavior that differs from social norms. Not all people agree on social norms, therefore not all people agree what types of behavior should be considered deviant.
Thinking about deviant behavior Think about behaviors that your parents might have thought to be deviant when they were younger. Would these behaviors be found to be deviant today…why or why not? Can you think of any behaviors that were not considered to be deviant in the past, but are considered to be deviant today?
Types of deviance Negative Deviance – behavior that goes against social norms Obesity, littering, ect Many different levels of deviance Positive Deviance – behavior that over accentuates social norms. Anorexia, bolemia, Deviant – a person who breaks social norms.
Social Control – Ways to encourage conformity to society’s norms. Internal control – you don’t do something because you know that it is wrong. External control – you don’t do something because of social sanctions. Social Sanctions – reward or punishment that encourage conformity to social norms.
Effects of Deviance on Society Negative EffectsPositive Effects Weakens trust Causes others to become deviant Parents to kids Leaders to followers Expensive to society Clarifies norms and enforces social values Small acts of deviance often prevent larger acts from occuring
Theory that deviance is more likely to occur when a gap exists between cultural goals and the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate means. For example: Success and materials goods are the goal for most Americans. Most people (both wealthy and poor) work hard to reach this goal. Some who don’t want to work hard can reach this goal by other means, such as stealing, embezzeling money, or cheating. Because they are not able to meet their goal using accepted means, they are deviant. Most people conform to social norms. Strain Theory
Responses to deviant behavior in strain theory. Innovation – when a person accepts the social norm, but uses illegal means to achieve it. Ritualism – a person rejects the social goal, but continues using legitimate means because of habit. Retreatism – people who reject the social goal and the legitimate means of achieving it. They have “checked out” of society. Rebellion – Reject the goal and means of achieving it, but replace the social goal with a goal of their own.
Think about a time in your life when you have practiced on of these responses. Reflection or discussion
Social bonds control the behavior of people, thus preventing deviant acts. The conformity to social norms depends on an individuals bond to society. People with strong bonds to society often follow social norms, but those who have weak bonds don’t. Example: A student who does not participate in school activities would not follow the social expectations that would be valued by those who did. Control Theory
Elements that form social bonds Attachment – The more attached you are to a person or group, the more likely you will be to conform to their norms. Commitment – The more committed you are to a goal, the more likely you are to conform to it. Involvement – Participation in an activity encourages you to conform. Belief– Belief in a norm or value promotes conformity.
Read the article on pg 213 on teen smoking. Questions Discussion Writing reflection
This theory states that individuals learn deviant behavior in proportion to the number of deviant acts that they are exposed to. Basically, deviant behavior is taught and learned. Example: A person who knows mostly deviant people is likely to become a deviant as well. A person who has a strong connection to a deviant person will be more likely to become deviant than a person who has a strong connection to a non- deviant person. The younger you are exposed to deviant behavior, the more likely you will be to become a deviant. Differential Association Theory
Do you believe this? Why or why not? If this was true? Would it support the theory that violent videos games, song lyrics, and movies increase deviant behavior? Discuss or reflect on this.
This theory states that society creates deviant people by labeling non-deviant people as being deviant. In short… if we are told that we are bad, we are more likely to become bad. In this theory deviance is not always the act, but the application of social rules that creates deviance. Example: People who are called stupid start to believe that they are, so they will study less (believing that they can’t learn) and will earn failing grades. These grades will then further their belief that they are “less intelligent” than their peers. Labeling Theory
You are a… Witch or the other word… Loser Slut What happens to people when you give them these labels? They do everything they can to prove you wrong They start acting that way Creates a stigma – trait used to characterize a person.
Primary v. Secondary Deviance Primary DevianceSecondary Deviance Occasionally breaking social norms The breaking of norms are not part of the persons lifestyle These people do not consider themselves “deviant” because of a single or few offenses Individuals life and identity begin to revolve around breaking the norms of society. These people become criminals They sometimes don’t believe what they are doing is wrong, or they just don’t care. Bonnie and Clyde
Can Primary Deviance grow into Secondary Deviance?
This theory originates from the idea that people who have “control” or power often come in conflict with those who do not. This causes one or both sides to turn to deviance as a means of achieving what they want or keeping what they have. Example: Do the wealthy or poor make the laws? Do those laws often reflect the needs or wants of the other group? Does this cause conflict between these groups? Does that conflict lead to crime? Conflict Theory
Race, Ethnicity, Social Status and Crime Conflict theorists point out that minority groups make up the overwhelming majority of criminals on death row. Though unequal, African Americans are more likely to get the death penalty for murdering a white person that a white person is for murdering an African American. Low incomes prevent many offenders from getting good representation. Victim Discounting – reducing the seriousness of a crime when it is against people of a “lower status.”
White collar crime White collar crime – Job related crime committed by high status people. Costs taxpayers billions of dollars / year but have a incarceration rate of less than 40%. These violators have more means to get better attorney’s. Society doesn’t think these crimes are as serious as other types of crime.