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Chapter 8.  Talking to oneself in public  Drag racing on a public street  Using illegal drugs  A man wearing women’s clothing  Attacking another.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8.  Talking to oneself in public  Drag racing on a public street  Using illegal drugs  A man wearing women’s clothing  Attacking another."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8

2  Talking to oneself in public  Drag racing on a public street  Using illegal drugs  A man wearing women’s clothing  Attacking another person with a weapon  Behavior that violates social norms

3  Some norms are fairly insignificant, others are essential to a working society  Violating unavoidable  Deviance varies by society-divorce prohibited in Philippines, legal here, businesses on Sunday  Labeling someone deviant 1.must be detected committing a deviant act, 2. be stigmatized by society. Ex. Scarlett Letter, Erving Goffman calls the “spoiled social identity”.

4  Clarifying norms- better defines boundaries of social behavior, serve as warning of consequences  Unify group-draws line between us and them  Diffusing tension-minor acts of deviance allows safety valve without disrupting basic fabric of society  Promoting social change-identify problem areas, when enough violate, triggers change in norm  Providing jobs- police, criminologists, uniform makers

5  Strain theory- Robert K. Merton- deviance is a natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society. Some are incompatible with reality, ex. Economic success. Not everyone has tools to achieve, poor judged  Anomie is the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable. Not enough guidelines for behavior leads to confusion, Durkheim studies Industrial Revolution

6  Societal distance  Hand Gestures  Eye contact  Facial expressions

7  How to respond to culturally approved goals and legitimate ways of achieving? 5 modes of adaptation  CONFORMITY- accept cultural goals and norms  Always involves legitimate means

8  INNOVATION- accept cultural goals, but reject cultural norms  Want to be successful, but non-traditional means for achieving. Ex. Drug dealer.  RITUALISM- reject cultural goals but accept cultural norms  Abandon goals but continue to observe acceptable rules of behavior. Ex. Turn down promotion

9  RETREATISM- reject both cultural goals and norms  Make no effort to share, drop out of society. Ex. Hermits, drug addicts  REBELLION- reject and replace cultural goals and norms, want to substitute new values. Ex. Members of revolutionary social movement.  Last 2 bigger threats to society

10  Competition and social inequality lead to deviance  Life as struggle between those who possess power-the ruling class- and those who do not- the lower classes. People with power commit deviant acts to maintain their position. People without power commit deviant acts to obtain economic reward or because of feelings of powerlessness.

11  Richard Quinney- the ruling classes label any behavior that threatens their power as deviant  To protect power, ideologies are established (belief systems) to explain deviance as a problem of the lower classes  Law enforcement is directed against these people, higher arrest and conviction rates  Ex. SC and crack babies cases

12  Control theory-deviance is a natural occurrence- why DO people conform rather than causes of deviance  COMMUNITY TIES- if weak, less conformity  Travis Hirschi, people develop social bonds in 4 ways  1.form attachments with others who accept norms  2.have a strong belief in the moral codes of society  commitment to traditional societal values  4.fully involved in nondeviant activities

13  Cultural transmission theory- deviant behavior is learned through interaction with others, just as conformist behavior is learned. SOCIALIZED to deviancy  Differential Association-the frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and nondeviant individuals, Edwin Sutherland  Techniques of neutralization-people suspend their moral beliefs to commit deviant acts- denying responsibility (accident), denying injury (no one hurt), denying the victim(had it coming), condemning the authorities(police corrupt), appealing to higher loyalties(to protect family)

14  Labeling theory-how do individuals come to be indentified? All commit acts during life.  Primary deviance is a nonconformity that goes undetected by authority. Do not view self as deviant nor does society.  Secondary deviance- results in labeling and most accept as true  Harold Garfinkel, degradation ceremony- a public setting, trial, individual is denounced, found guilty, and given new identity

15  An act, labeled by authority, prohibited by law, and punishable by government  Moral code v. legal violation  Types of crime:  Violent-rape, murder, assault, robbery  Crimes against property-theft, vandalism, arson  Victimless crimes-illegal drug use, helmets  White-collar crime-toxic pollution, political corruption, embezzlement  Organized crime- crime syndicate

16  Police- discretion, racial profiling  Courts- plea bargaining  Corrections-sanctions to punish include imprisonment, parole, and probation, Serve 4 functions:  1.retribution-act of revenge for society  2.deterrence-think twice  3.rehabilitation-to prevent recidivism  protection-death penalty ultimate

17  3 rd largest category of criminals juvenile offenders  Lower level of responsibility for acts  Same rights?


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