Presentation on theme: "Human Geography of South Asia: A Region of Contrasts"— Presentation transcript:
1 Human Geography of South Asia: A Region of Contrasts Chapter 25 NotesHuman Geography of South Asia: A Region of Contrasts
2 Section 1: India India- ancient culture, over 4,000 years old Blending of many different cultures & traditionsMany invaders & empires came to power in the region
3 Section 1: IndiaEast India Company FlagBy the 1500’s Europeans were trading with India for spices & cloth.Great Britain began to dominate this trade, through its company the British East India Company.
4 Section 1: India By 1857 Great Britain controlled all of India. This period is known as the Raj (lasted for 90 years)
5 Section 1: IndiaEventually Indians began to resist the British occupation. (struggle for independence, )They were led by Mohandas GandhiAdvocate of mass nonviolent resistance-Protest movement that does not use violence to achieve its goals
6 Section 1: India Gandhi cont.- Advocated an end to the Caste system British educated lawyerMade own clothes (why?)Imprisoned many timesCommonly used hunger fasts as a resistance toolForced the British from India in August, 1947Inspiration for Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s tactics in the Civil Rights movement
7 Republic of India 28 states and 7 union territories State- local governmentUnion Territory- run directly by national government
8 Section 1: India India is the world’s largest democracy ͌ 1.1 billion peopleStrongly Hindu country butOver 150 million MuslimsSource of conflict?One of the new 7 wonders of the world- Taj Mahal
9 Section 1: IndiaLand Reform- more balanced distribution of land among farmersProposal to redistribute land.1990s 25% of farmland was in the hands of powerful 5% of farm families
10 Section 1: IndiaGreen Revolution- increasing of crop yields by introducing higher-yielding grain varieties & teaching better farming techniques to farmers.Introduced in late 1960’s & early 1970’sDramatically improved the amount of food available for the poor.
11 Section 1: India Modern Life- Most marriages are arranged Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centers of film production in the world.Modern Life-Most marriages are arrangedDivorce is rareVery common for extended family to all live under one roof.Most are vegetariansHas largest film industry in the world.Public affection is discouragedAishwarya Rai
12 Section 1: India Languages of India 18 major languages More than 1,000 are spokenEnglish is common in business areas.Hindi is the official language
13 Section 1: India Hinduism 80% of population Reincarnation Karma- moral consequences of a person’s actions (help to determine how a person is reincarnated)
14 Section 1: India Caste system- system of social classes Born into a specific casteOnly marry within your casteOnly move to a different caste through reincarnation
16 Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh Indus Valley Civilization- largest of the world’s first civilizationsBegan around 2500 B.C.Fell around 1500 B.C.Aryans invaded soon after (from north of Iran)Mauryan, Gupta, Mughal empire rule territory later on
17 PAKISTAN (AT PARTITION) IndiaWest PakistanEast PakistanIndependence & Division-Britain divided up India into a Hindu nation (India) and a Muslim nation (East & West Pakistan)
18 Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh Partition- division of British IndiaLed to much violence between Hindu’s & Muslims1 million died10 million moved to new areasBy 1971 a civil war broke out and the new nation of Bangladesh was formed.
19 Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh Kashmir- small territory in northern India that both Pakistan & India claim as there ownMuslim population but had Hindu Maharaja at time of partitionJoined India3 Wars over the territoryBoth sides have nuclear weapons
20 Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh Microcredit- very small loans that are made available to entrepreneursEntrepreneur- people who start & build a businessEffective way of getting poor workers out of poverty
21 Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh Pakistan & Bangladesh- most are MuslimKey parts of Muslim Mughal EmpireRamadan- month-long period of fasting from sunrise to sunset.
22 Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan Geographically isolated, because of their mountainous terrainDifficult to conquer &/or visit in its history
23 Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan Both are Constitutional Monarchies-Kingdom in which the ruler’s powers are limited by a constitutionBoth are very poor & have limited resources
24 Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan Sherpas- people of Nepal of Tibetan ancestryRenowned mtn. climbers & pack carriers
25 Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)- born on the borders of Nepal & India in the 6th centuryFounder of Buddhism
26 Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan Buddhists in Bhutan use Mandalas-Geometric designs that are symbols of the universe & aid in meditation.
27 Section 4: Sri Lanka & the Maldives Sinhalese- Buddhist people from India that settled in Sri Lanka (majority)Tamils- Dravidian Hindu people from southern India that settled in Sri Lanka (minority)Civil War has been taking place on & off since the 1980’s between these groups
28 Section 4: Sri Lanka & the Maldives Population of only about 300,000 on over 1200 islandsRuled by Sultans- Muslim Rulers