Presentation on theme: "South Asia Whatley. India Indus Valley Civilization - around 2500 BC in modern day Pakistan Aryans - about a thousand years after Indus Valley civilization,"— Presentation transcript:
India Indus Valley Civilization - around 2500 BC in modern day Pakistan Aryans - about a thousand years after Indus Valley civilization, light-skinned Aryans crossed the mountains of Hindu Kush and spread across northern India. * key role in Indian Civilization *
Clickers Where was the Indus Valley Civilization? –Pakistan –Nepal –Bangladesh –East Pakistan
India Aryans –Small kingdoms on the Ganges Plain. Pushed the darker-skinned, native Indians, called Dravidians, toward the South. –Later, Persian and Greek invaders occupied the Indus Valley. But they did not conquer the Aryan kingdoms of the Ganges.
Clickers Who pushed the Dravidians south? –Mughals –British –Indus Citizens –Aryans
India Two great Indian empires eventually emerged on the lower Ganges. Mauryan Empire –united most of India –Asoka helped spread Buddhism Gupta Empire –Ruled over northern India during an age of peace and prosperity.
Clickers Which empire spread Buddhism? –Gupta –Mauryan
India 1500s - Mughal Empire –Muslim rule was implemented and the new customs sometimes caused conflict with those of the native Hindus.
India 1500s - Europeans arrived looking for spices, cloth, and other goods not available in Europe. French, Dutch, and Portuguese set up trading companies, but it was the British who won out. British East India Company!
India British East India Company –1757 –1857 - British govt put down a revolt and established direct rule over India. The period of direct rule is called raj.
India Mohandas Gandhi began an opposition movement, based on nonviolent resistance. 1947 - India became independent.
India After British were gone, still problems… Muslims of West and East Pakistan (now Pakistan and Bangladesh) chose to separate from India, which was strongly Hindu, and form a separate country. –Violence between the Muslims and the Hindu.
India Democracy - India’s democracy reflects elements of both the American and the British systems. –Like the US, India is a federation of states held together by a strong central government. –Like Britain, it is a parliamentary democracy. The leader of the majority party in parliament becomes prime minister and head of the government.
India Hindus and Muslims both must accommodate each other regarding politics in order to avoid conflict. –Other minority groups - Tamils and the Sikhs. Violence!
India Economic Challenges –About 2/3 of India’s people rely on farming for their livelihood. –Most farm families struggle to survive on what they can grow for themselves. –Land reform is one solution that is being considered. Land reform - a more balanced distribution of land among farmers. –(in the 1990s, 5 percent of India’s farm families owned nearly 25 percent of the farmland)
India Economic Challenges –Agriculture - since production was low, scientists developed new farming techniques. This program, called the Green Revolution, increased crop yields. Many farmers still cannot afford to use these new technological improvements however.
India Life and Culture –Arranged marriages are still common. More affluent, urban, young people have increasingly chose their own spouses. –Marriages are usually male-dominated and the divorce rate is very rare.
India Daily Life and Culture –Most Indians eat a largely vegetarian diet based on rice, legumes, and flatbreads. Some Indians eat meat, fish, and chicken, often in spicy dishes called curry. Meat consumption is limited by both Buddhism and Hinduism.
India Daily Life and Culture –One of the most popular sports is called cricket (similar to baseball). –Education - key factor in changing the economy. Literacy rate has increased since the 1950s. –In the city slums and rural areas, school attendance is irregular and literacy rates are low.
Pakistan and Bangladesh The Indus Valley Civilization - well- planned cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, which had brick buildings and sophisticated sanitation systems.
Pakistan and Bangladesh Partition and War –End of British rule in 1947 brought partition, or division, of British India. –Two new countries were created - India and Pakistan (West Pakistan and East Pakistan). About 1 million people died in the conflict caused by partition. –West Pakistan and East Pakistan are both Muslim, but ethnic differences divided them. –1971, with the help of India, East Pakistan won its independence as Bangladesh.
Clickers What is East Pakistan known as today? –Pakistan –Nepal –Bhutan –Bangladesh
Pakistan and Bangladesh Military Rule –Both Pakistan and Bangladesh have had political struggles since independence. Short periods of elected government have alternated with long periods of military rule. Political corruption has plagued both countries. Pakistan also has fought several destructive wars with India over the territory of Kashmir.
Clickers Which territory was fought over between Pakistan and India? –Bangladesh –Bhutan –Kashmir –Nepal
Pakistan and Bangladesh Struggling Economies –Both economies rely mostly on agriculture. Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world. –Subsistence farming is most common. The government has tried to help modernize farming methods, but many farms follow less productive traditional ways. Climate also affects crops. Large areas of Pakistan are arid, while Bangladesh is affected by monsoons and cyclones.
Clickers Which country has been plagued by severe monsoons? –India –Bangladesh –Pakistan –Sri Lanka
Pakistan and Bangladesh Small industry –Neither country is highly industrialized. Most factories are relatively small and lack the capital, resources, and markets required for expansion. –Exports include wool carpets, leather goods, and cotton garments. –Introduction of microcredit has been very important. This policy makes small loans available to poor entrepreneurs, people who start and build a business. Businesses that are too small to get loans from banks can join forces to apply for these microloans.
Clickers Someone who creates a business. –Entrepreneur –Business person –Microcredit –Microloan
Pakistan and Bangladesh Islamic culture –Ramadan –Pakistan is stricter in imposing Islamic law on its citizens. Purdah (the seclusion of women) is practiced in Pakistan. Women are not allowed to have contact with men who are not relatives. When in public, women must wear veils. In Bangladesh, purdah is much less common and religion practices are less strict. –Qawwali - a form of devotional singing performed by Muslims known as Sufis.
Clickers What is purdah? –Hindu law –Singing performed by Muslims –Seclusion of women –Seclusion of men
Nepal and Bhutan Both Nepal and Bhutan are constitutional monarchies - kingdoms in which the ruler’s powers are limited by a constitution. In Bhutan, the king is still the supreme ruler, while in Nepal the King shares power with an elected parliament. Both faces challenges trying to balance the interests of their powerful neighbors (China and India).
Nepal and Bhutan Both are poor with economies based mostly on agriculture. Mountainous terrain can be a problem, so many farmers rely on terraced farming. Deforestation is a problem in Nepal, but 70% of Bhutan is still forested.
Nepal and Bhutan Sherpas are the nomadic people of the Himalayas who are the traditional mountain guides of the Everest region.