Presentation on theme: "Mr. Burton 12.3 Please grab your folder, writing utensil, and paper. Please, silently sit."— Presentation transcript:
Mr. Burton 12.3 Please grab your folder, writing utensil, and paper. Please, silently sit.
Big Idea After the early spread of Islam, three large Islamic empires formed–the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal.
Muslim armies capture many countries After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr became the first caliph, the title that Muslims use for the highest leader of Islam. Caliphs were not religious leaders, but political and military leaders. Abu Bakr directed a series of battles against Arab tribes who did not follow Muhammad’s teachings.
Growth of the Empire Muslim armies battled tribes that did not follow Muhammad’s teachings. The Muslim armies united Arabia, then defeated the Persian and Byzantine empires. Conquered people could not build new churches or dress like Muslims. Christians and Jews could continue to practice their own religion. After years of fighting Muslim armies, many Berbers, a native people of North Africa, converted to Islam and joined forces with the Arabs. A combined Berber and Arab army invaded Spain and conquered it in AD 711.
Trade spreading Islam Along with their trade goods, Arab merchants took Islamic beliefs to new lands. Islam spread to India, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Trade brought new products to Muslim lands. Travelers learned how to make paper from the Chinese. Merchants brought crops of cotton, rice, and oranges from India, China, and Southeast Asia. Muslim merchants set up trade businesses in Africa.
A Mix of Cultures As Islam spread through trade, warfare, and treaties, Arabs came into contact with people who had different beliefs and lifestyles. Language and religion helped unify many groups that became part of the Islamic world. Muslims generally practiced tolerance, or acceptance, with regard to these people. Jews and Christians, in particular, could keep their beliefs.
Growth of Cities Baghdad Capital of Islamic Empire One of the world’s richest cities through trade and farming. Center of culture and learning Cordoba By the AD 900s, was the largest and most advanced city in Europe Showplace of Muslim civilization
Expansion of Islam The great era of Arab Muslim expansion lasted until the 1100s. Three non-Arab Muslim groups built large, powerful empires that took control of much of Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Ottoman Empire Ottomans were Muslim Turkish warriors who took territory in the mid-1200s. The Ottomans were aided by slave soldiers called Janissaries. They had new gunpowder weapons. Mehmed II and Suleyman I led conquests that turned the Ottomans into a world power. During Suleyman’s rule, the Ottoman Empire reached its height. Ottomans took control of the eastern Mediterranean and pushed farther into Europe from 1520–1566. They would control these areas until the early 1800s.
Safavid Empire Begins Safavids were Persian Muslims. A conflict arose over who should be caliph among the Safavids, Ottomans, and other Muslims. Islam split into two groups. The Shia thought that only members of Muhammad’s family could become caliphs. The Sunni thought it did not matter as long as they were good Muslims and strong leaders.
Safavid Empire The Safavid Empire began in 1501 when the Safavid leader Esma‘il conquered Persia and made himself shah, or king. He made Shiism, the beliefs of the Shia, the official religion of the empire. ‘Abbas became shah in 1588. He became the greatest Safavid leader. He defeated the Uzbeks and took back lands that had been lost to the Ottomans. The Safavids blended Persian and Muslim traditions. The Safavid Empire lasted until the mid-1700s.
Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire was located in northern India and was comprised of Turkish Muslims from Central Asia. Babur established the Mughal Empire, but it grew mostly under an emperor named Akbar. Akbar’s tolerant policies allowed Muslims and Hindus to live in peace. In the late 1600s, an emperor reversed the tolerant policies, which led to conflicts and the end of the empire.