Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 – The Spread of Islam"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4 – The Spread of Islam Section NotesVideoEarly ExpansionMuslim EmpiresCultural AchievementsIslamic Traditions and the World TodayMapsHistory Close-upEarly Muslim ConquestsTrade in the Muslim WorldThe City of CórdobaThe Ottoman EmpireThe Safavid EmpireThe Mughal EmpireThe Blue MosqueQuick FactsChapter 4 Visual SummaryImagesThe City of CórdobaIslamic AchievementsIslamic Achievements (continued)
2 Early Expansion The Big Idea 220.127.116.11.5The Big IdeaConquest and trade led to the spread of Islam, the blending of cultures, and the growth of cities.Main IdeasMuslim armies conquered many lands into which Islam slowly spread.Trade helped Islam spread into new areas.A mix of cultures was one result of Islam’s spread.Islamic influence encouraged the growth of cities.
3 Main Idea 1: Muslim armies conquered many lands into which Islam slowly spread. After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr became the first caliph, the title that Muslims use for the highest leader of Islam.Caliphs were not religious leaders, but political and military leaders.Abu Bakr directed a series of battles against Arab tribes who did not follow Muhammad’s teachings.
4 Growth of the EmpireMuslim armies battled tribes that did not follow Muhammad’s teachings.The Muslim armies united Arabia, then defeated the Persian and Byzantine empires.After years of fighting Muslim armies, many Berbers, a native people of North Africa, converted to Islam and joined forces with the Arabs.A combined Berber and Arab army invaded Spain and conquered it in AD 711.
5 Main Idea 2: Trade helped Islam spread into new areas. Along with their trade goods, Arab merchants took Islamic beliefs to new lands.Islam spread to India, Africa, Malaysia, and Indonesia.Trade also brought new products to Muslim lands and made many people rich.Travelers learned how to make paper from the Chinese.Merchants brought crops of cotton, rice, and oranges from India, China, and Southeast Asia.Muslim merchants set up trade businesses in Africa.
6 Main Idea 3: A mix of cultures was one result of Islam’s spread. As Islam spread through trade, warfare, and treaties, Arabs came into contact with people who had different beliefs and lifestyles.Language and religion helped unify many groups that became part of the Islamic world.Muslims generally practiced tolerance, or acceptance, with regard to these people.Jews and Christians in particular could keep their beliefs.
7 Main Idea 4: Islamic influence encouraged the growth of cities. BaghdadCapital of Islamic EmpireLocated near land and water trade routesWalled cityBuilt hospitals, observatories, and a library that was used as a universityCordobaCapital of what is now SpainStrong economy based on agriculture and tradeBy the AD 900s, was the largest and most advanced city in EuropeGreat center of learningAlso a center of Jewish culture
8 Muslim Empires The Big Idea 7.2.4The Big IdeaAfter the early spread of Islam, three large Islamic empires formed—the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal.Main IdeasThe Ottoman Empire covered a large area in eastern Europe.The Safavid Empire blended Persian cultural traditions with Shia Islam.The Mughal Empire in India left an impressive cultural heritage.
9 Main Idea 1: Muslims ruled the Ottoman Empire, which was a political and cultural force. The Ottomans were aided by slave soldiers called Janissaries.They had new gunpowder weapons, such as the cannon.Mehmed II and Suleyman I led conquests that turned the Ottomans into a world power.During Suleyman’s rule, the Ottoman Empire reached its cultural peak.Poets wrote beautiful works.Architects turned Istanbul into a Muslim city.Women had limited freedom.
10 Ottoman Government and Society The sultan, or Ottoman ruler, issued laws and made all major decisions in the empire.Ottoman society was divided into two classes.Judges and people who advised the sultan were part of the ruling class.Those who didn’t fit into the ruling class made up the other class. Many of these were Christians or Jews from lands the Ottomans had conquered.
11 Main Idea 2: The Safavid Empire blended Persian cultural traditions with Shia Islam. A conflict arose over who should be caliph.Islam split into two groups.The Shia thought that only members of Muhammad’s family could become caliphs.The Sunni thought it did not matter as long as they were good Muslims and strong leaders.
12 The Safavid EmpireThe Safavid Empire began when the Safavid leader Esma’il conquered Persia and made himself shah, or king.He made Shiism the official religion of the empire.The Safavids blended Persian and Muslim traditions.The manufacturing of traditional products, such as handwoven carpets, silk, and velvet, was encouraged.
13 Main Idea 3: The Mughal Empire in India left an impressive cultural heritage. Babur established the Mughal Empire, but it grew mostly under an emperor named Akbar.Akbar’s tolerant policies helped unify the empire.A conflict of cultures led to the end of this empire, but resulted in a culture unique to the Mughal Empire.Cultures that blended in the empire includedMuslimsHindusPersiansIndians
14 Cultural Achievements 7.2.6The Big IdeaMuslim scholars and artists made contributions to science, art, and literature.Main IdeasMuslim scholars made advances in various fields of science and philosophy.Islam influenced styles of literature and the arts.
15 Main Idea 1: Muslim scholars made advances in various fields of science and philosophy. Muslim scholars made advances in astronomy, geography, math, and science.Many ancient writings were translated into Arabic.
16 Cultural Achievements GeographyGeographers made more accurate maps than before, mostly due to the contributions of al-Idrisi.MathThe Muslim mathematician al-Khwarizmi laid the foundations for modern algebra.AstronomyThey made improvements to the astrolabe, which the Greeks had invented to chart the positions of the stars.
17 More Scholarly Advances MedicineThe Muslims’ greatest scientific achievements may have come in medicine.A doctor named Ar-Razi discovered how to diagnose and treat the deadly disease smallpox.PhilosophyThe Muslim philosophy focused on spiritual issues, which led to a movement called Sufism.Sufism teaches that people can find God’s love by having a personal relationship with God.
18 Main Idea 2: Islam influenced styles of literature and the arts. Two forms of literature were popular in the Muslim world—poetry and short stories.ArchitectureThe greatest architectural achievements were mosques. They often had a dome and minarets—narrow towers from which Muslims are called to prayer.Patrons, or sponsors, used their wealth to pay for elaborately decorated mosques.
19 More Islamic Influences ArtBecause they could not represent people or animals in paintings due to their religion, Muslim artists turned calligraphy, or decorative writing, into an art form.They used this technique to decorate buildings and mosques.