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Carbon Chemistry Chapter 8
I. Organic Compounds Organic compounds = are compounds that contain Carbon. (Some exceptions) Organic means living things. Many Organic compounds have similar properties such as boiling and melting point as well as odor and solubility. examples: sugar, starch, fuels, synthetic materials like plastic
Some Examples of Organic Compounds
examples: sugar, starch, fuels, synthetic materials like plastic
I. Organic Compounds B. The backbone of organic compounds is carbon because it has 4 valence electrons and each atom can form 4 separate bonds
1) Straight Chain 2) Branched chain 3) Ring I. Organic Compounds
C. Carbon compounds can form in 3 different Arrangements 1) Straight Chain 2) Branched chain 3) Ring
Formulas for Carbon Compounds
1) Chemical formulas a shorthand way to write the name of the compound 2) Structural formulas shows the number and arrangement of atoms.
Example: Acetone Chemical Formula: C3H6O Structural formula:
I. Organic Compounds Isomers are carbon compounds with the same chemical formula but different structural formulas. There can be so many different isomers of carbon because carbon can form single, double and triple bonds.
Examples of Isomers Butane: C4H10
Chains of Molecules Monomer is one molecule that makes up the links in a polymer chain. Polymers are very large molecules made up of many smaller molecules bonded together.
I. Organic Compounds Organic compounds are formed mostly from the elements carbon, and hydrogen but can also include elements like oxygen, nitrogen , phosphorus, sulfur, and others Hydrocarbons are organic compounds formed from only hydrogen and carbon
Chemical Compounds in Cells and in Our Food
Carbohydrates 1 gram carbohydrates provides 4 Calories of energy
Provide raw materials to make cell parts Two groups: Simple carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates
Carbohydrates Energy rich C, H, and O
Simple sugars - glucose, fructose, maltose Complex carbohydrates – made up of many simple sugars attached to each other Starch- storage of glucose in plants Cellulose – make up plant cell walls Found in cell membranes, other cell parts, and store energy
Simple Carbohydrates = Sugars
Found in fruits, vegetables, milk Glucose (C6H12O6) – major source of energy for your cells. Another simple sugar = fructose in fruits
Made of many simple sugars connected Starch – found in potatoes, wheat, rice, corn Fiber (Cellulose) – found in plants, but cannot be digested and passes through your digestive system - helps keep things moving along. (fiber)
Proteins Contain C, H, O, N and sometimes Sulfur Found in many foods
Body uses proteins to build and repair body parts
Proteins in the diet For tissue growth and repair
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions Can be used for energy, but not usually About 12% of your daily Calorie intake should be protein
Structure of Proteins Made of amino acids
There are 20 different amino acids in living things These aa’s link together to form a large molecule of aa’s in one protein. Change one aa, changes whole protein
Enzymes Special kinds of proteins
Chemicals that speed up chemical reactions in the body without being used up themselves. Here the enzyme helps break a large molecule into 2 smaller ones. Some enzymes join two small molecules to make one larger one.
Film on proteins
Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes)
Contain more than 2x the energy of carbohydrates Store energy Parts of cells Protect internal organs Insulate the body
Lipids Fats, oils, waxes Store energy Made of C, H, and O
Contain more energy than carbs
Types of Fats Unsaturated Fats Saturated Fats
Liquid at room temperature Oils Considered good for you Saturated Fats Solid at room temperature From animals; a few plants – coconut palm Bad for you
Film on Lipids (fats)
Nucleic Acids DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid RNA – ribonucleic acid
Made of C, H, O, N, and Phosphorus Contain instructions for cells to carry out all their functions. Monomer is the 4 different nucleotides DNA is a spiral shape RNA is single strand with one different nucleotide and different sugar.
Film on Nucleic Acids
Water Essential for all life. Most chemical reactions occur in water.
Helps in building up molecules and breaking them down at the functional groups.
Water People die within days of not having water
Makes up most of the body’s fluids Makes up about 65% of your body weight The body’s most important functions take place in water. Nutrients are dissolved in water in blood and transported around the body Need about 2 liters of water per day Need more if weather is hot or you are exercising
Vitamins (Organic) Act as helper molecules for a variety of chemical reactions in the body. The body makes some – K is made by bacteria in intestine The rest come from foods – eating a wide variety of foods provides all the vitamins needed.
Types of Vitamins Water soluble Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins
Dissolve in fatty tissue and are stored there. Includes vitamins A, D, E and K Water soluble Vitamins Dissolve in water and not stored in body Needed in diet every day. Includes vitamins B and C
Salts Ionic compounds found in your body as dissolved ions.
NaCl dissolved in you blood helps in contraction of muscles and transmission of messages through your nerves. Other types of salts help grow healthy bones and teeth.
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