2 I. Organic CompoundsOrganic compounds = are compounds that contain Carbon.(Some exceptions)Organic means living things.Many Organic compounds have similar properties such as boiling and melting point as well as odor and solubility.examples: sugar, starch, fuels, synthetic materials like plastic
3 Some Examples of Organic Compounds examples: sugar, starch, fuels, synthetic materials like plastic
4 I. Organic CompoundsB. The backbone of organic compounds is carbon because it has 4 valence electrons and each atom can form 4 separate bonds
5 1) Straight Chain 2) Branched chain 3) Ring I. Organic Compounds C. Carbon compounds can form in 3 differentArrangements1) Straight Chain2) Branched chain3) Ring
9 I. Organic CompoundsIsomers are carbon compounds with the same chemical formula but different structural formulas.There can be so many different isomers of carbon because carbon can form single, double and triple bonds.
11 Chains of MoleculesMonomer is one molecule that makes up the links in a polymer chain.Polymers are very large molecules made up of many smaller molecules bonded together.
12 I. Organic CompoundsOrganic compounds are formed mostly from the elements carbon, and hydrogenbut can also include elements like oxygen, nitrogen , phosphorus, sulfur, and othersHydrocarbons are organic compounds formed from only hydrogen and carbon
14 Carbohydrates 1 gram carbohydrates provides 4 Calories of energy Provide raw materials to make cell partsTwo groups:Simple carbohydratesComplex carbohydrates
15 Carbohydrates Energy rich C, H, and O Simple sugars - glucose, fructose, maltoseComplex carbohydrates – made up of many simple sugars attached to each otherStarch- storage of glucose in plantsCellulose – make up plant cell wallsFound in cell membranes, other cell parts, and store energy
16 Simple Carbohydrates = Sugars Found in fruits, vegetables, milkGlucose (C6H12O6) – major source of energy for your cells.Another simple sugar = fructose in fruits
17 Complex Carbohydrates Made of many simple sugars connectedStarch – found in potatoes, wheat, rice, cornFiber (Cellulose) – found in plants, but cannot be digested and passes through your digestive system - helps keep things moving along. (fiber)
20 Proteins Contain C, H, O, N and sometimes Sulfur Found in many foods Body uses proteins to build and repair body parts
21 Proteins in the diet For tissue growth and repair Enzymes speed up chemical reactionsCan be used for energy, but not usuallyAbout 12% of your daily Calorie intake should be protein
22 Structure of Proteins Made of amino acids There are 20 different amino acids in living thingsThese aa’s link together to form a large molecule of aa’s in one protein.Change one aa, changes whole protein
23 Enzymes Special kinds of proteins Chemicals that speed up chemical reactions in the body without being used up themselves.Here the enzyme helps break a large molecule into 2 smaller ones. Some enzymes join two small molecules to make one larger one.
30 Nucleic Acids DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid RNA – ribonucleic acid Made of C, H, O, N, and PhosphorusContain instructions for cells to carryout all their functions.Monomer is the 4 different nucleotidesDNA is a spiral shapeRNA is single strand with one differentnucleotide and different sugar.
32 Water Essential for all life. Most chemical reactions occur in water. Helps in building up molecules and breaking them down at the functional groups.
33 Water People die within days of not having water Makes up most of the body’s fluidsMakes up about 65% of your body weightThe body’s most important functions take place in water.Nutrients are dissolved in water in blood and transported around the bodyNeed about 2 liters of water per dayNeed more if weather is hot or you are exercising
34 Vitamins (Organic)Act as helper molecules for a variety of chemical reactions in the body.The body makes some – K is made by bacteria in intestineThe rest come from foods – eating a wide variety of foods provides all the vitamins needed.
35 Types of Vitamins Water soluble Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins Dissolve in fatty tissue and are stored there.Includes vitamins A, D, E and KWater soluble VitaminsDissolve in water and not stored in bodyNeeded in diet every day.Includes vitamins B and C
36 Salts Ionic compounds found in your body as dissolved ions. NaCl dissolved in you blood helps in contraction of muscles and transmission of messages through your nerves.Other types of salts help grow healthy bones and teeth.