Presentation on theme: "Pp. 157-163. A carbon atom has 4 electrons available for bonding in its outer energy level. To become stable, a carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds."— Presentation transcript:
A carbon atom has 4 electrons available for bonding in its outer energy level. To become stable, a carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds that fills its outer energy level. Carbon can bond with other carbon atoms. It can also bond with many other elements. When carbon atoms bond to each other, they form: Straight chains Branched chains Rings These structures can have any number of C atoms and can also include atoms of other elements, i.e., H, O, N
The ability to bond in so many ways makes it possible to have a huge number of carbon structures.
Molecular Chains Carbon compounds vary in size. Large organic molecules are called biomolecules (macromolecules). Proteins are examples of macromolecules. Polymers = a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules (monomers) bond together.
Many polymers are formed by condensation reactions, a chemical reaction. In condensation, the monomers that bond together to form polymers have an –H and an –OH group that can be removed to form H-O-H, a water molecule (H 2 O) Polymers can be broken apart in a chemical reaction called hydrolysis. Water is added in this process and the water causes the breakdown of the polymer.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule (macromolecule) made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Ratio = C-H 2 -O Simple carbohydrate = simple sugar called monosaccharide Glucose Fructose These are isomeres. Glucose + fructose = sucrose, a disaccharide. Sucrose = disaccharide (table sugar) Sucrose is created through a condensation reaction.
Polysaccharides = largest carbohydrate molecules Polymers made of many monosaccharides (monomers), which are linked together. Glycogen = linked glucose molecules Animals store energy Starch = linked glucose molecules Plants store energy Cellulose = linked glucose molecules Plants use for structure Forms cell walls (structure unique to plants)
Large biomolecules (macromolecules) made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen. Fats Oils Waxes Steroids All except steroids are made of fatty acids joined to glycerol. A fatty acid is a long chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms Glycerol is an organic compound belonging to the alcohol family of organic compounds.
Nonpolar They will not dissolve in water because they are nonpolar and are not attracted by water molecules. Remember that water is polar.
Saturated fatty acids Each carbon in the carbon chain is singly bonded to the other carbons – all carbons are bonded with a single bond. Unsaturated fatty acids Carbon atoms have double bonds with other carbon atoms, leave “empty” areas along carbon chain. Fatty acids with more than one double bond are said to be polyunsaturated. Many double bonds…
Essential to all life Large complex polymer Building blocks (monomers) are amino acids 20 amino acids Make 1000s of proteins Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Structure for tissues and organs Cell metabolism
Amino acids are linked together in condensation reactions. Form a special covalent bond called a peptide bond Proteins come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The shape of the protein determines its function (what job it does).
Important because… Muscle tissue contraction Transportation of O 2 in the bloodstream Providing immunity Regulating other proteins Chemical reactions – enzymes speed up chemical reactions (p. 162)
Complex biomolecule (macromolecule) that stores cellular information Polymer made of monomers called nucleotides Nucleotides are made of : Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus atoms arranged in 3 groups: Nitrogenous base Simple sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) Phosphate group
Deoxyribonucleic Acid Master copy of an organism’s information (genetic) code Instructions to form enzymes and structural proteins Determines how an organism will look and act This genetic code is passed on from parent to offspring.
Ribonucleic Acid Forms a copy of DNA This copy is used for making proteins. The chemical differences between RNA and DNA are minor but important. DNA and RNA work together to make proteins.