2 World cultures is the study of the connections between people and their environment Geography is the study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other
3 Five Themes of Geography LocationPlaceInteraction between people and their environmentMovementRegion
4 Location – position on the Earth’s surface Relative location – describe positionAbsolute location – use latitude and longitudeLatitude – distance north or south of the EquatorLongitude – distance east or west of the Prime MeridianPrime Meridian – imaginary line that runs through Greenwich England Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere
5 Place – physical and human characteristics Physical characteristics - landforms, climate, soil, animal lifeHuman characteristics – peoples’ ways of life – activities, transportation, religion,language
6 Interaction between people and their environment people change the world around themHidden costpollutionPeople must decide how to build their economies without harmingthe environmentAdaptationPeople sometimes have to change due to the environment
7 of people, goods, and ideas Movementof people, goods, and ideasoften occurs togetherMigrationpeople moving from place to place looking for food, a better way of life, war, natural disasters, involuntarilyInterdependencedependence of countries on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world
9 Physical characteristics – landforms / climate Cultural characteristics – shared religionPolitical characteristics – nationsEconomic characteristics – developed, developing, Third World
10 ways of showing the curved Earth on a flat surface Mercator projectionRobinson projectionMap projectionsways of showing the curved Earth on a flat surfacePeters projectionInterrupted projection
11 Political map - show the borders that divide nations Physical map - show features - mountains lakes, riversNatural resource map - shows the location of oil, coal, other important resourcesClimate mapVegetation map - show the plant life of a place or region
12 all things that make up a people’s Customs and traditions Cultureall things that make up a people’sentire way of lifeElements of cultureSocial organizationCustoms and traditionsLanguageArts and literatureReligionForms of governmentEconomic systems
13 Organizing members into smaller groups Social OrganizationOrganizing members into smaller groupsFamily is the most important unit of social organizationPerson with authority varies from one culture to anotherFamily patternsNuclear family – typical in industrialized societiesExtended family – common in many societiesSocial classesRanks people in order of statusBases on factor a culture values highlyIn the past, a person born into a class, stayed in the class for life
14 Customs and Traditions Rules of behavior Minor rules of everyday behavior are enforced by social pressureRules concerning what is right and wrong are enforced more strictly often are part of a culture’s written lawsLanguageCornerstone of cultureArts and LiteratureTeaches about cultural values
15 supports the values that the people consider important Religionsupports the values that the people consider importantMonotheism – the worship of one godPolytheism – the worship of more than one godMajor religionsHinduismBuddhismJudaismChristianityIslam
16 Provides for common needs Keeps order within society GovernmentProvides for common needsKeeps order within societyProtects the society from outside threatsTypes of GovernmentDemocracy – people have supreme power, the government may act on by and with consent of the peopleRepublic – the people choose the leaders who represent themDictatorship – the ruler or group holds power through force
17 Causes of Cultural Change Technology skills and tools people use Changing environmentadapt to changes in environmentNew ideasalteration of actionsDiffusionthe movement of customs or ideas from one place to another
22 How do geographers describe a place? Examples of how humans interact with their environment.Why do countries trade?Why did early people migrate?Examples of physical regions.Advantages of globes versus flat maps.Advantages of flat maps over globes.Know the major land forms.
23 Why do regions around the Equator have warm climates? Most important unit of social organization.People wo speak the same language typically share ---.Important elements of culture.Purpose of government.What are the three basic economic questions nations must ask?
24 How did new technology (tools made with stone and bone) change peoples lives? Rock-and-Roll came from what cultural region?How has recent technology quickened the pace of change?How has technology changed the Traveling People way of life?How can cultural diffusion combat racism?