2 ELEMENTS OF CULTURE Culture All things that make up a person’s way of life.7 ElementsSocial OrganizationCustoms & TraditionsLanguageArts & LiteratureReligionForms of GovernmentEconomic System
3 1. Social OrganizationDefinition: smaller units of a culture to create social structure and help people work together to meet basic needs
4 1. Social Organization Family-basic way to pass on culture – social controls: regulates individual or group behaviorsNuclear: immediate familytypical for industrialized societiesVary in size based on culture and traditionsExtended: several generations living in one householdCommon agricultural/traditional societiesEconomic unit
5 1. Social Organization Social Class – Social Groups Rank people by statusWays: money, education, job, heritagerelative to culture and economySocial Mobility: ability to move social classSocial GroupsMembers have similar interests
6 2. Customs and Traditions Def: rules for behavior/how a society expects people to behave = social controlsWays to express ideas, emotions, and pass on informationExamples: ways you eat, sleep, greet, wear, obtain food, prepare foodVary in importancefrom daily behavior to right and wrong (written law)
7 3. LanguageDef: ways to communicate/express thoughts, feelings, emotions, and knowledgeBasic way to pass on cultureHelps unify and strengthen cultureIssues of dialectsAll culture have language but not all develop forms of writingVerbal/Non-VerbalDigital Language
8 4. Arts and LiteratureDef: ways to express ideas information and emotions, teaches cultural values; performing artsStrengthens a cultures identityExpress cultural prideExamples: music, visual arts (pictures), dance, stories
9 5. ReligionDef: a person’s belief system that helps guide behavior and teaches basic values = social controlsWhere do we come from? How to act? Where are we going?
10 Cosmology: The study and explanation of the universe
16 6. Forms of Government Types of Government: Democracy Republic People have supreme powerRepublicRepresentative democracyDictatorshipRuler or group holds power by forceA government that officially calls itself a "democratic republic" is usually a dictatorshipFascism
17 6. Forms of Government Types of Government: Autocratic/Authoritarian ruling with absolute authorityMonarchypower or sovereignty held by a single person for life – inherited position - Ruling familyConstitutional Monarchyhas a written Constitution and has a monarch as Head of State
18 7. Economic SystemsDef: how a society obtains food, clothing, and shelter - Distribute goods and servicesHow people use limited resources to satisfy their wants and needsAnswers:What goods and services should we produce?How should we produce them?For whom should we produce them?
19 Economic system Traditional Economy Market Economy Command Economy Produce what they need to surviveHunting and Gathering, Farming, and HerdingSurplus is tradedMarket EconomyBuying and SellingCommand EconomyGovernment controlledIndividuals have little economic powerMixed EconomyIndividuals and Government make decisionsCars are a great example: People pick & Government sets standards
20 7. Economic Systems Examples of Economic Systems: Traditional economy People produce what they need to surviveHunting and gathering, farming, herdingMarket economyFree Market economy: people decided the basic economic questions based on supply and demand
21 7. Economic Systems Examples of Economic Systems: Command economy Government controls the economy and answers basic economic questionsIndividual has little inputMixed economyBits of all economiesIndividual makes some economic decisions and the government makes othersMost countries mixed economies
22 What determines cultural similarities and differences? TechnologyAvailability of moneyHistoryRelationship with natureGeography and climate