2 What is Culture? The ways of life & knowledge of a grp of ppl According to Ralph Linton:The knowledge, attitudes, & behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a societyCultureis passed on by parents, grandparents, teachers, etc& affects the way we think, what we believe (religiously & morally), what we eat, what we wear, how we behave, how our society behaves
3 #1= Social Organization The way a culture divides its society into smaller structures/ groupsSociology= the study of the development, organization, & functioning of societyWhat is the most important social unit?FamilyFamily patternsNuclear family- wife, husb, kids.Typical to industrialized societiesExtended family- Several generations in one household. Parents, kids, grandparents, aunts, uncles. Usually in developing nations.Patriarchal- family where the oldest male makes the decisionsMatriarchal- family where the oldest female makes all the decisions
4 Kinship= concept that everyone is related to someone There are rules (ie uncles can’t marry nieces)Clan= ppl w/in an ethnic grp who claim to be descended from a common ancestorSocial Classes= rank ppl according to status in societyCan be based on $, occupation, heredity, education, etcSocial mobility= chance to move up and down the social ladder.
5 #2- Customs & Traditions Rules of behavior (enforced by social pressures or by written laws)ways of doing everyday thingsBasic moral valuesLanguageLinguistics= the study of languagesLanguage families- most langs have root in same source. Largest major language family is the Indo-European LanguageClothesFoodsEducationOccupation
6 #3- Arts & LiteratureProducts of human imagination teach us about cultural values. Can encourage pride or criticize.Includes:PaintingSculpturemusicDrawingTheatreLiteraturearchitecture
7 #4- ReligionHelps ppl answer the basic questions about the meaning of life; supports the values of a culture; can shape morals & ethics of a grp of pplMonotheism- belief/worship of 1 godPolytheism- belief/worship of more than 1 godAnimism- belief that everything in nature has a spiritThe 5 Major World Religions:HinduismBuddhismChristianityJudaismIslam
8 #5- LanguageCornerstone of CultureCulture passed through languageAll cultures have languageLanguage reflects a culture’s identitySome countries have mixed languages
9 #6- Forms of GovernmentGov’t is designed to provide for ppl’s common needs- keeping order in society & protecting it from outside threatsRefers to the person(s) who holds pwr and to society’s laws & institutions.Types of Gov’t:Democracy- the ppl have supreme pwr. Gov’t acts by & w/ their consentRepublic- ppl choose the leaders who will represent themDictatorship- a ruler (or grp acting as 1) holds pwr by force. Often uses military to stay in office.
10 #7- Economic SystemsHow ppl use limited resources to satisfy their wants & needs3 questions:What goods & services should we produce?How should we produce them?For whom should we produce them?Traditional economy- ppl prod most of what they need to survive. Hunting/gathering or farming/herding societies.Market economy- indivs answer the econ questions by buying & selling goods & servicesCommand economy- gov’t controls what goods are prod, how they are prod & what they cost. Indivs have little econ pwrMixed economy- indivs make some decisions & gov’t makes others