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ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Emotional Expressivity Assessing outward display of emotions by themselves and by other people.
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Expressed Emotion People’s expressive behavior reveals their emotions. How do we communicate? –Body Language –Tone of Voice –Actual Words 7%38%55%
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers About Emotional Expressivity Mean scores for the Emotional Expressivity Scale mean Female: 66.60 Male: 61.15 Gender difference was replicated across several samples Positive correlation of both extraversion and neuroticism. (Suggests that expressive people report being more social, but also more excitable and anxious) In studies of 23,000 people from 26 cultures around the world, women more than men reported themselves open to feelings (Costa & others, 2001). That might help explain the perception that emotionality is “more true of women” —a perception expressed by nearly 100 percent of 18- to 29-year-old Americans (Newport, 2001).
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Consider This… Do you think there are cultural differences in emotional expressiveness? What might be the advantages and disadvantages of being emotionally expressive? Expressions not only communicate emotion, they also amplify & regulate it. Facial Feedback Hypothesis Don’t do This in Brazil!
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Theories of Emotion James-Lange –Suggest we feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Cannon-Bard Theory Cannon thought the body’s responses were not distinct enough to evoke different emotions (Anger, Passion or Fear?) Physiological arousal & emotional experiences occur simultaneously. Cortex-subjective awareness of emotion Sympathetic Nervous System- physiological arousal.
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Schachter-2-Factor Suggest that our physiology and our cognitions-perceptions, memories, and interpretations-together create emotion. Arousal + Cognitive Label = Emotion Ummm.. The wolf is NOT in a cage.
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers So, do we get this? Imagine that your brain can’t sense your heart pounding. According to each theory, how would this affect your experienced emotion? James-Lange –Diminished emotions Cannon-Bard –Experience emotions normally 2-Factor –Conscious interpretation of the arousal is required
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers In Summary JAMES-LANGE THEORY physiology is necessary for emotion supporting evidence: emotions are less intense after (high) spinal cord injuries CANNON-BARD THEORY physiology is NOT a necessary cause for emotion (cognition doesn't require physiological reaction) SCHACHTER'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF EMOTION emotions have 2 ingredients: physiological arousal (general) and cognitive label (distinctive) emotions have 2 ingredients: physiological arousal (general) and cognitive label (distinctive) arousal from epinephrine can be interpreted in different ways
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Singer & Schachter’s Study Read the description of the experiment. The impact of a drug (epinephrine) can be changed by social influence. Other researchers have found that after exercise, lingering arousal can lead to various emotions, depending on the labels applied. MUST COGNITION PRECEDE EMOTION? no, according to neurological evidence (though maybe there is "unconscious" quick cognitive appraisal) no, according to neurological evidence (though maybe there is "unconscious" quick cognitive appraisal)
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth PublishersPolygraph polygraph: a machine that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing changes) Guilty subjects are expected to show elevated polygraph activity to the relevant questions, compared to innocent subjects. (Adapted from Honts, Raskin, & Kircher, 1994, p. 254.)
ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project / Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers Examples of typical questions asked in a polygraph test. Introductory: Do you intend to answer all questions truthfully? Neutral: Are you a student? Control: Prior to your last birthday, did you ever take something that did not belong to you? Relevant: Did you take the rare coin? Neutral: Is your first name [John]? Relevant: Did you take the rare coin from the desk?
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