Energy is all around you! You hear energy as sound, you see energy as light, you can feel energy as heat or wind. Living organisms need energy for growth and movement. You use energy when you hit a tennis ball, lift an object, or move in any way. But what is energy? Energy is the ability to do work or cause changes in matter. What is energy?
Energy comes from many different resources. Natural resources are things made by nature that people need or use. All of Earth’s resources can be placed into two categories: renewable and nonrenewable resources. Where do we get energy?
Nonrenewable energy resources Nonrenewable Resources
Nonrenewable energy resources Nonrenewable energy resources are being used up faster than new ones can be made. Fossil fuels are nonrenewable energy resources. Fossil fuels formed millions of years ago from the remains of dead plants and animals. Where does the chemical energy stored in oil and natural gas come from? The chemical energy stored in coal comes from trees and plants that lived millions of years ago. Fossil fuels, like coal, oil and natural gas, are energy resources that store chemical energy. Dead animals!
Is electricity a type of fuel? Electricity is a type of energy, NOT a type of fuel. In a power station fossil fuels can be burned to generate electricity. Nonrenewable energy resources What type of energy is electricity?
Put the following types of energy in the correct order to show how electricity is generated in a power station. heat energy electrical energy stored chemical energy mechanical energy Nonrenewable energy resources Electricity is electrical energy. stored chemical energy heat energy mechanical energy electrical energy
Do you know your fossil fuels or are you a fossil fool? 1. Burning fossil fuels can be useful because it releases a lot of— a) energy b) films c) music 2. Fossil fuels are made from— a) melted rock b) old bones c) decayed plants and animals Nonrenewable energy resources
3. Nonrenewable energy resources— a) cannot be used up b) are used faster than they can be replaced c) take about 50-100 years to be replaced 4. Coal is a— a) nonrenewable resource b) renewable resource c) inexhaustible resource Nonrenewable energy resources
6. Burning fossil fuels affects the environment by creating— a) pollution b) oxygen c) sunflowers 5. Which of the following lists contains only nonrenewable energy resources? a) coal, biomass, hydropower b) coal, petroleum, uranium c) hydropower, wind, geothermal Nonrenewable energy resources
7. Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy resources because they cannot be— a) repaired b) replayed c) replaced 8. Some scientists think a bad side-effect of burning fossil fuels is— a) cold weather b) global warming c) more homework 7I Fossil fuels – Are you a fossil fool?
Renewable energy resources Renewable Energy Resources
Renewable energy resources will not run out and can be replaced. But all energy resources have an environmental impact. Renewable energy resources
The following renewable energy sources are used in the United States to heat buildings and produce electricity. Hydropower is energy obtained from moving water. The water turns large turbines which produce electricity. Renewable energy resources Biomass is fuel that comes from plants and animals. Biomass is burned to produce heat and electricity. Geothermal energy is heat from melted rock deep below Earth’s surface and can be used to heat buildings and produce electricity. Wind energy is used to turn large turbines. These turbines produce electricity. Solar energy is energy from the sun in the form of light and heat. Solar energy can be captured to heat buildings and produce electricity.
Advantages of using biomass Contains energy absorbed from the sun Renewable energy resources Is a renewable energy resource Can be burned to heat buildings and make electricity Can be used to make ethanol, a cleaner fuel than gasoline Contains less energy than fossil fuels so more must be burned to obtain an equal amount of electricity Disadvantages of using biomass Can pollute the air and smells bad when burned Transported by large trucks that can pollute the air and require large amounts of gasoline to run
Advantages of using hydropower Is the cheapest way to make electricity Renewable energy resources Is a renewable energy resource Do not pollute the air Lakes formed by dams can be used for recreational purposes Building dams can flood parts of the land and disturb habitats Disadvantages of using hydropower Are not many good locations left in the US to build dams for hydropower
Advantages of using geothermal energy Comes from heat inside the Earth Renewable energy resources Is a renewable energy resource Can be heat buildings and make electricity Can be used to make ethanol, a cleaner fuel than gasoline Plants are very expensive to build Disadvantages of using geothermal energy Geothermal steam can contain dangerous chemicals Must be used where it is found—cannot be transported over long distances Found in many places in the US
Advantages of using solar energy Comes from the sun Renewable energy resources Is a renewable energy resource Can be captured to heat buildings and make electricity Is clean and free to use Only available when the sun is shining Disadvantages of using solar energy Solar power plants are more expensive to maintain Hard to capture Found everywhere Cannot be transported, must be used at source
Advantages of using wind energy Caused by the uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun Renewable energy resources Is a renewable energy resource Wind turbines capture wind energy to make electricity Making electricity from the wind is very cheap Wind farms take up a lot of space Disadvantages of using wind energy Not every area has enough wind to make electricity Cannot be transported, must be used at source
Decide if these statements about conserving energy at home are true or false. Did you know that the energy needed to run a home for a year creates more of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide than an average car?! Conserving energy 1. The amount of heat lost annually through roofs and walls is enough to heat 1 million homes for a year! FALSE! Roofs and walls lose enough heat to warm 3 million homes a year! How could this energy be saved? 2. Each year US households use $1 billion worth of electricity a year on cooling and freezing food. 3. An energy efficient washing machine needs half the energy of an old, inefficient model and cuts water consumption considerably. TRUE! Fridges use a lot of energy so don’t treat them like any other cupboard. If you open a fridge door for one minute, it takes three minutes for it to cool down which uses up energy. 4. Each energy efficient light bulb uses a quarter of the energy used by a regular bulb and saves about $8 per year on electricity. 5. If everyone in the United States installed just one energy saving light bulb the amount of carbon dioxide saved would fill the Royal Albert Hall in London 1000 times. FALSE! The amount of carbon dioxide saved would fill the Royal Albert Hall 3000 times!! If everyone does a little bit to save energy, together they can help a lot! TRUE! Energy efficient bulb might cost more than regular bulbs but overall they save energy and money! How many energy efficient bulbs do you have at home? FALSE! An energy efficient washing machine uses one third of the energy of an old, inefficient model.