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TODDLER UNIT.  Physical Development of Toddlers.

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Presentation on theme: "TODDLER UNIT.  Physical Development of Toddlers."— Presentation transcript:


2  Physical Development of Toddlers

3 Motor Development  Large-muscle development refers to the development of trunk, arm, and leg muscles Large-muscle development  walking  running  jumping  climbing  throwing and catching

4 Small-Muscle Development  Small-muscle development refers to the development of small muscles, especially those in hands and fingers Small-muscle development  fine-motor skills depend on a child’s level of eye-hand coordination  Eye-hand coordination is the ability to coordinate what a person sees with the way the person moves his or her hands Eye-hand coordination

5 Small-Muscle Development End of first year: Hold object with thumb and index finger By 12–18 months: Hold spoon in fist By 15 months: Fill empty containers and hold a pencil or crayon in fist

6 Small-Muscle Development  By 15 months, most toddlers can  remove hat and socks  insert rather large objects into holes  turn pages of a book several at a time  begin to fit objects together  build a tower of two to three soft blocks

7 Small-Muscle Development  Fine-motor skills improve even more between 18 months and 2 years  string large beads on string  turn pages of book one at a time  turn doorknobs  hit pegs with hammer  better hold of crayon

8 Think About It  Learning Through Play pg. 297  Is the son normal??

9  Intellectual Development of Toddlers

10 How and What Toddlers Learn  Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development  infants complete first four substages of sensorimotor stage (birth to two years) substages 1 and 2 involve baby’s own body substages 3 and 4 involve people and objects

11 How and What Toddlers Learn  Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development  Toddlers complete last two substages of sensorimotor stage  Older toddlers may enter the preoperational stage

12 How and What Toddlers Learn  Substage 5 – (12-18 months)  experiment with objects to receive various results  notice some attributes of objects (sometimes color, sometimes size)  use physical trial/error to solve problems  imitate behaviors they have never done before; imitate only in presence of a model  look for hidden objects in last place seen

13 How and What Toddlers Learn  Substage 6 – (18-24 months)  think about ways to solve problems without using physical actions in trial/error  think through sequence of a few steps to solve problem  do some deferred imitation  know all objects and people are someplace; hunt for objects in every possible place  Done with the first stage of cognitive development – The Sensorimotor Stage = )

14  Social Emotional Development of Toddlers

15 Toddlers Find out more about the world, and about themselves as individuals Find out the world is not solely devoted to their needs

16 Achieving Autonomy  Erikson’s Stages of Personality Development  First stage of personality development is called Trust versus Mistrust  Second stage of personality development is called Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt  begins for most children sometime between 12 and 18 months  completed about 3 years of age

17 Achieving Autonomy  Children who successfully complete this stage (reach autonomy) feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.  feature=related feature=related

18 Achieving Autonomy  Autonomy is a form of self-control in which a toddler seeks to do his or her own will Autonomy  builds on the toddler’s expanding motor and mental skills  Toddlers are proud of new skills and feel very independent  Easily misjudge skills

19 Achieving Autonomy Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt Seek some autonomy Seek control Autonomy leads to self-pride Failure leads to shame and doubt

20 Promoting Autonomy  Provide safe, simple choices  red or blue shoes  Offer choices that will be honored  Redirect before negative or unsafe actions begin What is redirecting? How can you redirect someone?

21 Self-Esteem Toddlers feel good about themselves Toddlers receive a positive response Toddlers feel confident interacting with others

22 Temper Tantrums  When goals are not met, toddlers react with anger  Temper tantrums are common during second year Temper tantrums  meant to attract attention, not directed at anyone  ignoring behavior may make it stop  give reassurance and love after episode

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