Body growth and development do not grow as quickly as the first year grow at different rates (height and weight) -heredity -environment
Years 1 to 3 Babies triple their birth weight during the first year Toddlers gain only ¼ of that amount Most girls reach 53% of their adult height by age 2 Most boys reach 50% of their adult height by age 2
THEREFORE… It is usually true that a tall two-year- old will be a tall adult. Ben is 24 months old. He is currently 34 ½ in. tall. How tall will he be?
Average height and weight from one to three years Age in months 12 18 24 30 36 Height Weight 30 in 21 lbs 32 in 24.5 lbs 34 in 27 lbs 36 in 30 lbs 38 in 32 lbs
Motor Development Toddlers improve on motor skills developed as an infant Also learn many new skills Practice, practice, practice!!
Large-muscle development development of the trunk and arm and leg muscles also called gross motor development -climbing -walking -jumping -running -throwing
most begin within two to three months after first birthday learn to walk at different ages –Beginning stand with feet wide apart turn feet outward and flex knees tiptoes arms out Walking
Walking contd –At two years may look like a run 170 steps per minute half the length of adult stride walk onto objects lots of falling
Running True running begins around 2 years Not skilled Cannot start or stop quickly
Jumping Not much before 2 years At 2 years- jump off low objects with both feet Move arms backwards
Climbing Toddlers climb onto furniture and other objects Walk up and down stairs with help Put both feet on each stair Climbing relates to accessibility and courage
Throwing and Catching Throwing begins on accident Like seeing what happens and then throw on purpose Sitting before standing Not skilled throwers until 3 years Catch by squatting and picking up Arms extended and elbows stiff
Small Muscle Development Development of small muscles- hands and fingers Fine motor skills Eye-hand coordination Hold utensils, drink from cup, feed themselves- after 1 year
18 months- 2 years string large beads turn book pages one at a time open doors using knobs hit pegs with hammer hold crayons and pencils By 2 years- most show hand preference
Providing for the Toddlers Physical Needs Feeding Clothing Rest and Sleep Hygiene Toilet Learning
Eating Styles Toddlers appetite decreases, so weight gain slows Picky eaters over time toddlers will meet their food needs Self Feeding is important
Nutrition Adults must provide food that is nutrient dense Low nutrient foods simply fill the toddler up and then he is too full to eat nutritious foods
Table Foods These are foods prepared for the entire family Avoid adding salt or sugar. Continue to introduce new foods at 3 or 4 day intervals Mash or cut foods
Choking Problems Avoid foods that can choke toddlers: popcorn, grapes, raisins, nuts; spoonfuls of peanut utter, hot dogs, small and hard candies, and chunks of raw carrots.
Clothing Consider self-dressing features to help them get dressed by themselves Consider safety, comfortable fabric and construction, growth features, durability, attractive style, and easy care
Rest and Sleep Toddlers sleep less than babies May resist sleep Many techniques help in sleep management
Hygiene (or Baths!) Usually fun for toddlers. May use a seat or a tub Never ever leave a toddler in a bathtub alone
Toileting Timing varies from toddler to toddler Many toddlers do not complete learning process quickly.
Physical Factors Ability to feel a full bowel and bladder Ability to know what the sensation of needing to go means in time to get to the potty Ability to control muscles used for holding in or letting go Ability to walk Ability to remove or push down clothes