2 Understanding Two- and 6Understanding Two- andThree-Year-Olds
3 Key ConceptsTwo-year-olds have improved motor control and expressive language skills.Patience is key to working with two-year-olds as they tend to be negative, become frustrated, and have temper tantrums.Three-year-olds have better coordination, more mature thinking skills, and are typically eager to please.
4 ObjectivesDescribe the physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development of two-year-olds.Explain how three-year-olds develop physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally.Relate how the development of two- and three-year-olds will affect your role as a teacher.
5 Physical Development of Two-Year-Olds Two-year-old children continue to grow physically, but the rapid growth in infancy tapers offCharacteristics of two-year-olds’ physical development includegross-motor developmentfine-motor developmentself-help skills
6 Gross-Motor Development Improved coordination and body controlLike playing with ballsMore control in leg and foot musclesBalancing, jumping, and riding
7 Fine-Motor Development Finger dexterity and controlUsing writing toolsHand preference is developedBuilding with blocks
8 Self-Help Skills Two-year-olds can undress themselves begin to dress themselvescan drink from a cup without help; use a strawstart to eat with a spoonbegin toilet learning
9 Cognitive Development of Two-Year-Olds Two-year-olds’ cognitive development focuses on three main areasLanguage comprehension skillsExpressive language skillsMath readiness skills
10 Language Comprehension Skills Language comprehension is a person’s understanding of languageGrows rapidly in two-year-oldsFollow directions and answer simple questionsUnderstand pronounsUnderstand the difference between soft and heavy or big and tallStart to understand words related to space
11 Expressive Language Skills Expressive language is the ability to produce language formsSpeech involving simple sentencesTwo language strategies work best with two-year-oldsFeeding-in: you provide the child’s languageExpansion: you expand the child’s language
12 Math Readiness SkillsMath skills develop as children interact with others and with objectsSize concepts include big and smallAwareness of shapes, forms, and colorsSorting objects
13 Social-Emotional Development of Two-Year-Olds Social developmentPlay next to each other, but not cooperativelyMore interested in adultsCan be possessiveSharing is difficultAre usually affectionatecontinued
14 Social-Emotional Development of Two-Year-Olds Like to control their surroundingsCan get frustratedAre afraid of being harmedVery imaginativeAre loving and caringNeed security and routine
15 DiscussWhy do you think patience is an important quality when you work with two-year-olds?
16 Teaching Two-Year-Olds Working with two-year-olds requiresgentle and firm guidanceunderstanding that they are egocentricflexibility and patienceability to handle noise and control itroutine and predictable schedulesability to handle temper tantrums
17 BrainstormSuggest some strategies you can use to control the noise level in a room with two-year-old children.
18 Physical Development of Three-Year-Olds Three-year-olds continue to develop ingross-motor developmentfine-motor developmentself-help skills
19 Gross-Motor Development With better coordination, three-year-olds are able tothrow, jump, and hopclimb and descend stairscatch balls with their armsride and steer tricyclesbalance on one foot for up to eight secondshop on one foot up to three times
20 Fine-Motor Development Fine-motor skills of three-year-olds includeusing scissors to cut paperreproducing simple shapes and tracingmanipulating blocks and puzzle pieces
21 Self-Help Skills Three-year-olds become increasingly self-sufficient Can turn the water faucet on and offAre better at dressing themselvesUse knives during mealtimeHave almost full control over toilet routines
22 DiscussWhat are some construction features that manufacturers of children’s clothing might use to help three-year-olds dress and undress themselves?
23 Cognitive Development of Three-Year-Olds By the third birthday, the ability to think matures, improvinglanguage comprehension skillsexpressive language skillsmath readiness skills
24 Language Comprehension Skills Understanding of language continues to grow in three-year-oldsThey begin to understand the pronouns you and theyUnderstand who, whose, why, and howSpatial concepts such as toward, up, top, and next become clearer
25 Expressive Language Skills Children’s ability to produce language continues to increaseMore than 900 words; improved grammarUse longer and more complex sentencesUnderstand possessive nounsDifferentiate past and present tenseStart to use question wordsTalk out loud to themselves
26 Math Readiness SkillsThree-year-olds continue to learn basic math conceptsUnderstand full, less, smaller, and emptyBegin to develop counting skillsDistinguish between one and many
27 BrainstormName some activities you can use with three-year-olds that might contribute to the development of their counting skills.
28 Social-Emotional Development of Three-Year-Olds After the third birthday, children outgrow temper tantrums and become more agreeable and form friendshipsSocial developmentEmotional development
29 Social Development Social development during this age involves using new ways to show concerns for otherslearning positive ways to get attentionadjusting to new people more easilyplaying with, rather than next to, other childrenusing language to communicate with friendsrecognizing gender roles, or the expected behaviors of girls or boys
30 Emotional Development Emotional development during this age includesshowing strong visible emotionsless frustration, more eager to pleasedeveloping control over their strong feelingsbeginning to develop a self-conceptshowing affection and imitating adults
31 ReflectWhy do you think three-year-olds are less likely to get frustrated than two-year-olds?
32 Teaching Three-Year-Olds When teaching three-year-olds, consider theyare happy, sociable, and agreeableadjust easily to new adults, classmates, and situationslike playing alone and in groups of two or threeenjoy dramatic playare becoming increasingly independent
33 ReviewName three ways in which two-year-olds differ from three-year-olds developmentally.The key to working with two-year-olds is _____ because they tend to be negative, become easily frustrated, and can have temper trantrums.Are two-year-olds or three-year-olds more eager to please? Why?
34 Glossaryegocentric. Quality of people believing everyone thinks as they do.expressive language. The ability to produce language forms; used to express a person’s thoughts to others.gender roles. Behaviors expected of girls or boys.
35 Glossarylanguage comprehension. An understanding of language. Sometimes referred to as receptive or inner language.self-concept. Qualities a child believes he or she possesses. A result of beliefs, feelings, and perceptions a child has of himself or herself as part of the world.