Presentation on theme: "Drugs and the Nervous System Drug: Any substance, other than food, that changes the structure or function of the body ALL drugs (prescription, over the."— Presentation transcript:
Drugs and the Nervous System Drug: Any substance, other than food, that changes the structure or function of the body ALL drugs (prescription, over the counter and illegal) have potential to do harm if abused or used improperly. Drugs differ in ways they affect the body. (kill bacteria, treat disease, affect particular body system) Some of most powerful drugs cause changes in the Nervous System (within brain and at synapses between neurons)
Drugs That Affect the Synapse Synapse: Key relay station in transmission of information within N.S. Neurotransmitters: transmit messages between neurons or neuron and effector. Drugs that interfere with actions of neurotransmitters can disrupt the N.S for better (treatment of disease) or worse (abused or misused.
Stimulants: Increase actions regulated by N.S (Ex. increase heart rate, blood pressure, breathing) and increase release of neurotransmitters at some synapses in the brain feeling of energy and well being.
Effects of stimulants wear off brain’s neurotransmitters depleted. User suffers fatigue & depression Long term use circulatory problems, hallucinations, depression
Depressants: Decrease rate of functions regulated by the brain (Ex. decrease heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, relax muscles and relieve tension, anxiety). Some depressants enhance effects of neurotransmitters that prevent start of action potentials. (exhititory/inhibitory compete) Combination of depressants and alcohol can depress CNS until breathing stops fatal
Types of Drugs Cocaine Opiates Marijuana Alcohol
Cocaine: Causes the sudden release in brain of neurotransmitter dopamine which leads to intense feelings of satisfaction & pleasure. Supply of dopamine depleted when drug wears off depression dependence on cocaine Cocaine: stimulant that increases heart rate & blood pressure. Can lead to heart damage or heart attack Crack cocaine: potent form of cocaine, highly addictive because intense high wears off fast.
Cocaine comes from the South American Coca plant
Opiates: Mimic endorphins, natural chemicals in the brain that help to overcome sensations of pain. 1 st doses strong feelings of pleasure but body quickly adjusts to higher levels of endorphins. Result, body can’t do without the drug. When user stops uncontrollable pain & sickness because the body can’t produce enough endorphins.
Marijuana: most widely used illegal drug from Cannabis sativa (a species of hemp plant). Hashish (Hash): potent form of marijuana from flowering parts of the plant. THC: (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Active Ingredient Produces temporary feeling of euphoria and disorientation. Worse than smoking tobacco for the lungs Long term use may memory loss, inability to concentrate, decreased testosterone in males.
Alcohol: Depressant that slows down the rate of CNS function. Slows down reflexes, disrupts coordination, impairs judgment. Pregnant women who drink on a regular basis risk having a child with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a group in birth defects caused by effects of alcohol on the fetus. FAS babies can suffer heart defects, malformed faces, delayed growth, poor motor development. In US >50,000 babies born/year with alcohol related birth defects, many which are irreversible.
Long term alcohol abuse destroys liver cells where alcohol is broken down. Scar tissue develops (cirrhosis) which eventually blocks flow of blood through the liver & interferes with liver functions. Eventually death may occur from liver failure. Liver with cirrhosis increases in size due to build up of scar tissue
Drug TypeMedical UseExamplesEffects on Body StimulantsIncrease alertness, relieve fatigue AmphetaminesInc. heart & resp. rates, elevates BP, dilates pupils, dec. appetite DepressantsRelieve anxiety, irritability, tension Barbituates Tranquelizers Slows actions of CNS. Sm amts calm, relax Lg amts slurred speech, impaired judgement OpiatesRelieve painMorphine Codeine Depressant. drowsy, restless, nausea Commonly Abused Drugs