Presentation on theme: "Introduction to linguistics II"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to linguistics II Faculty of English Language and LiteratureG. TogiaSection Πη-Ω20/04/2017
2 Today’s topics Pragmatics: You can study these topics in: Speech acts. Direct and indirect speech acts.Politeness.You can study these topics in:Dirven, R. & Verspoor, M.: Chapter 7Yule, G.: Chapter 11
3 PragmaticsSpeech acts.Course title: Introduction to Linguistics II
4 The functions of language 1 When we interact with other people, we sometimes do not have a particular intention, other than simply indicating that:We have recognised each other's presence.This is the phatic function of language.E.g. You’re welcome.
5 The functions of language 2 In the majority of cases we:Make other people aware of our mental states by using language.We inform, request, order, complain, persuade, etc.Whatever we try to accomplish with our language is a communicative intention.
6 Speech act: definition The actual words we utter to realise a communicative intention is called a speech act.
7 “How to do things with words” The philosopher John Austin was one of the first to argue that we use language:Not simply to make statements.But to ‘do things’, such as orders, requests, apologies, etc.I order you to get out.Could you open the window, please?I apologise for what I said.His book “How to do things with words” (1952) greatly influenced pragmatics and philosophy of language.
8 How did S.A. theory originate? The problem faced by the pragmatic tradition at the time had to do with the limitations imposed by truth-conditional semantics.We use language to make true or false statements.It’s raining,It is true only if it is raining.Merry Christmas,Since it is a wish, it cannot be tested for its truth or falseness.
9 Speech-act theory 1 Austin argued that: Some ordinary language declarative sentences are not used for making true or false statements.
10 Speech-act theory 2 I bet you six pounds it will rain tomorrow. 10I bet you six pounds it will rain tomorrow.I declare war on Iraq.I sentence you to 10 years’ imprisonment.I warn you that trespassers will be prosecuted.When uttering the above, we do not simply ‘say’ things, but ‘do’ things.
11 Speech-act theory 3They are verbal actions with the utterance of which I do something with my words.I baptise thee.The human being involved being baptised,provided that the utterance is accompanied by particular ceremonial actions.
12 Speech-act theory 3Successful communication depends on being able to recognise the particular force an utterance has, its illocutionary force, which is the speaker’s intended meaning.I’ll show youIllocutionary force depends on speaker’s intended meaning:Threat, warning, statement.
13 Characteristics of speech acts They involve human beings.To understand what is said it is important to understand the speaker’s intention (the illocutionary force of the utterance).
14 Direct and indirect speech acts Course title: Introduction to Linguistics II
15 Direct speech acts You answered the phone. Did you answer the phone? 15You answered the phone.Did you answer the phone?Answer the phone!Some constructions are typically used to make a statement, ask a question and issue a command.
16 Direct and indirect SAs Compare the following:Can you bake a cake?QuestionCan you pass me the salt?RequestSuch constructions are not always associated with the performance of their typical speech-acts.
17 Direct and indirect S.As: definition When we employ a construction (interrogative, imperative, declarative) to perform a typical speech-act (e.g. statement, question, request), we have an direct speech-act.When the construction is used with a different illocutionary force than the typical one, then we have an indirect speech-act.
18 Indirect SAs: example I will come back tomorrow. Has the declarative construction.It can be used to make a statement → direct speech act,but also to make a promise or issue a threat → indirect speech-acts.
19 Performative verbs19Sometimes the speech act performed is signalled explicitly:I apologise for what I said this morning.I promise I will be there tomorrow.Apologise and promise are performative verbs:Verbs which both describe and express a speech act.Exercises 1-3
20 PragmaticspolitenessCourse title: Introduction to Linguistics II
21 Politeness Politeness involves: making linguistic and extra-linguistic choices in the relevant socio-cultural context,in order to maintain a social equilibrium and show consideration for the feelings of your interlocutor.
22 Face In pragmatics, ‘face’ is: someone’s public self-image.Politeness is showing awareness of and consideration for another person’s face.
23 Positive and negative face Positive face is the need to be connected, to belong to a group.It is associated with one’s desire for approval.Negative face is the need to be independent and free from imposition.It represents the desire for autonomy.
24 Face-threatening acts A speech act that represents a threat to a person’s self-image.Pass me the salt!If you do not have the social power to get someone to do something, you perform a FTA.
25 Face-saving actsAn act that lessens the possible threat to another person’s face.Could you pass me the salt?
26 Negative politeness strategies Strategies oriented towards the hearer’s negative face.Would you mind washing your hands?Can you shut the door please?Could we perhaps meet for a coffee tomorrow?Sorry to bother you, but could you close the door?Sorry to interrupt, but may I borrow your book?I’d be grateful if we could meet at the end of the week.
27 Positive politeness strategies Strategies oriented towards the hearer’s positive face.Strategies seeking common ground or co-operation:Let’s go to the party.Let’s shut the window.We really should close the door.Oh these biscuits smell wonderful. May I have one?Exercises 1-3
28 SummarySpeech acts: verbal actions with the utterance of which I do something with my words.Direct speech acts: when the act performed is explicitly named.Indirect speech acts: when the act performed is not explicitly named.Politeness: making linguistic and extra-linguistic choices in the relevant socio-cultural context in order to maintain a social equilibrium and show consideration for the feelings of your interlocutor.
29 Next week...The co-operative principle.Implicatures.