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Nature vs. Nurture How Genes and Environment Influence Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "Nature vs. Nurture How Genes and Environment Influence Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nature vs. Nurture How Genes and Environment Influence Behavior

2 What is the study of genetic and environmental influences on behavior? BEHAVIORAL GENETICS

3 Every non-genetic influence in our lives is referred to as… ENVIRONMENT

4 What are the threadlike structures made of DNA that contain genes? CHROMOSOMES

5 What is the complex molecule that contain the genetic information that make up the chromosomes? DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

6 What are the complete instructions for making an organism? (it consists of all the genetic material in the organism’s chromosomes) GENOME

7 To what percent are all humans similar to each other? 99% The 1% difference determines all of our differences from each other (height, hair color…)

8 What are genetically identical people that develop from a single fertilized egg? Identical twins Fraternal twins develop from separate fertilized eggs and are genetically no close than brothers and sisters

9 Of the following, the best way to separate the effects of genes and environment in research is to study A.Fraternal twins B.Identical twins C.Adopted children & their adopted parents D.Identical twins raised in different environments D. Identical Twins raised in different environments (remember Jim Lewis & Jim Springer?)

10 What continent has the highest rate of twins? Africa Twice as great as the west, 4xs as great as Asia

11 A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity & intensity is called… Temperament

12 What is the variation among people that can be attributed to genes? heritability

13 What are the distinctive characteristics or behaviors that are determined by genetics? (hint: they are passed by your parents) traits

14 A trait more likely to be expressed in offspring is called a… Dominant trait Recessive traits are less likely to be expressed

15 All of the possible combinations of genes is called… genotype

16 The observable result that is shown physically in a person is called… phenotype

17 What genetic abnormality occurs when there is a break in the 21 st chromosomal pair and generally causes mental retardation? Down’s syndrome

18 What genetic disorder results in muscle impairment and deterioration of the basal ganglia? Huntington’s chorea

19 What is the subfield of biology that studies the structure and function of genes and seeks to discover ways to control gene expression? Molecular genetics Think about positives and negatives of molecular genetics

20 What perspective of psychology focuses on the following: Organism’s varied offspring compete for survival Certain biological variations increase chance to reproduce & survive Offspring that survive are more likely to pass on their genes Over time, population characteristics may change Evolutionary Psychology

21 What is a random error in gene replication that leads to change? Mutation

22 The idea that traits which contribute to reproduction and survival are most likely to be passed down is the main principle of evolutionary psychology? Natural selection

23 Explain who each of the following describes (men or women): 1.Think about sex more 2.Look for mates that will provide support and protection 3.Are more interest in relational sex 4.Seek more partners to spread their genetic material 5.Are attracted to youth 1-men, 2-women, 3-women, 4-men, 5-men

24 Parents are most likely to pass on which of the following to their child: a. personality b. temperament c. religion d. iq C-religion, values, political affiliation…

25 When a group of people shared the same behaviors, attitudes, ideas, values, & traditions that are passed down through generations it is called… Culture

26 Understood rules for accepted behavior in society is called… norms

27 What is the buffer zone that we like around our bodies? Personal space Varies from culture to culture

28 In what type of society is one’s own goals given priority over the group? Individualist

29 In what type of society does the group receive priority over the individual? Collectivist

30 Identify which gender is described by the following: 1. More aggressive (murder ratio is 9 to 1) 2. More supportive of the Iraq war (51% to 34%) 3. Represent 84% of gov’t Parliament positions around the world 4. Are more welcoming of others ideas 5. Are more likely to share support rather than voice opinions during interactions 1-men, 2-men, 3-men, 4-women, 5-women

31 Identify which gender is described by each of the following: 1. As children they are more likely to play in larger groups 2. As children they are more likely to play with one friend or small group 3. Buy 85% of greeting cards 4. Talk on the phone longer 5. Seek out help from friends more 1-boys, 2-girls, 3-women, 4-women, 5-women

32 What are the principle male and female sex hormones? Testosterone-male, estrogen-female

33 What is the term that refers to the expected ways men and women should behave? Gender roles

34 Our sense of being male or female is called… Gender identity

35 What theory states that children learn gender linked behaviors by observing & imitating or by being rewarded & punished (parents, peers…)? Social Learning Theory

36 What theory states that children learn from their cultures what means it means to be male & female and adjust their behaviors to fit that expectation? Gender schema theory

37 Identify which gender is described by the following: 1.Are reported to have thicker frontal lobes (verbal fluency) 2.Are reported to have thicker parietal lobes (space perception) 3.Were 80% of those killed in the 2004 tsunami because they were working at home 4.Typically work more hours with child care & household duties 1-women, 2-men, 3-women, 4-women

38 Children usually choose friends that are interested in the same thing. What is this called? Selection effect

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