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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 3 Nature & Nurture Of Behavior Based on info fm McCubbin, Myers, Lefton Worth Publishers

2 Evolutionary Psychology
Study of evolution of behavior & mind, using principles of natural selection Example Helps explain gender differences in sexuality Critics Make too many hindsight explanations

3 Behavior Genetics Study of relative power & limits of genetic & environmental influences on behavior Heredity Biological transmission of traits & characteristics from parents to offspring Genes Biochemical units of heredity; make up chromosomes Environment Every non-genetic influence

4 Behavior Genetics Twin studies Adoption studies Temperament studies
Identical twins Develop from single fertilized egg Fraternal twins Develop from separate eggs Adoption studies Temperament studies Temperament Identical twins Fraternal Same sex only Same or opposite sex

5 Environmental Influence Examples
Parental influence Account for less of personality & more for value & beliefs Experience Enriched environment activates & preserves neural connections Peer influence Culture

6 Genetic difference between sexes
Nature & Gender Genetic difference between sexes X Chromosome Y Chromosome Testosterone

7 Nurture & Gender Gender Role Gender Identity Gender-typing
Set of expected behaviors for males & females Vary over time & across cultures Gender Identity One’s sense of being male or female Gender-typing Acquisition of traditional masculine or feminine role

8 Nurture & Gender Social Learning Theory Gender Schema Theory
Learn social behavior by observing & imitating & by being rewarded or punished Gender Schema Theory Learn from culture a concept of what it means to be male & female & adjust behavior accordingly

9 Nature & Nurture Genes & experience both important Work together
Environment reacting to & shaping what nature predisposes Work together Not ‘if’ but ‘how much’

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