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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
Chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture Of Behavior James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
Chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA that contain the genes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes has two strands-forming a “double helix”--held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides

3 Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein Genome the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes

4 Genes: Their Location and Composition
Nucleus Chromosome Gene Cell DNA

5 Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Mutations random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides the source of all genetic diversity

6 Evolutionary Psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection Gender in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female

7 Evolutionary Psychology
Men preferred attractive physical features suggesting youth and health Women preferred resources and social status

8 Behavior Genetics Behavior Genetics Environment
study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior Environment every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

9 Behavior Genetics Identical Twins Fraternal Twins
Same sex only Same or opposite sex Identical Twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms Fraternal Twins develop from separate eggs genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal environment

10 Behavior Genetics Temperament Heritability
a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

11 Behavior Genetics Interaction Molecular Genetics
the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity) Molecular Genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

12 Environmental Influence
Two placental arrangements in identical twins

13 Environmental Influence
Experience affects brain development Impoverished environment Rat brain cell Enriched

14 Environmental Influence
A trained brain

15 Environmental Influence
Culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Norm an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

16 Environmental Influence
Personal Space the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies Memes self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person

17 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
X Chromosome the sex chromosome found in both men and women females have two; males have one an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child Y Chromosome the sex chromosome found only in men when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

18 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones both males and females have it additional testosterone in males stimulates growth of male sex organs in the fetus development of male sex characteristics during puberty Role a set of expectations (norms) about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave

19 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Gender Role a set of expected behaviors for males and females Gender Identity one’s sense of being male or female Gender-typing the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

20 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Gender and Culture

21 The Nature and Nurture of Gender

22 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Social Learning Theory theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished Gender Schema Theory theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly

23 The Nature and Nurture of Gender
Two theories of gender typing

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