# Research Basics PE 357. What is Research? Can be diverse General definition is “finding answers to questions in an organized and logical and systematic.

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Research Basics PE 357

What is Research? Can be diverse General definition is “finding answers to questions in an organized and logical and systematic fashion”

How Have We Searched for Truth? 1) tradition or custom 2) authority 3) personal experience 4) deductive reasoning 5) scientific inquiry (research)

Nature of Research Systematic – ordered structure of inquiry Logical – process to evaluate conclusions drawn Empirical -collection of data (facts, experience, etc.) on which to base decisions Reductive – individual events (data) are used to establish general relationships Replicable – process is recorded so findings and procedures can be tested again

Deduction and Induction Deductive –using logic from general to specific –often used for generating our hypotheses in research Inductive –from specific to general –general conclusions based on many specific observations Integration of these forms the scientific method

Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

Basic Scientific Method Identify the problem – central to beginning the method of actually solving the problem Formulate the hypothesis – outcome statement to test Develop the plan of research – what do you need to do to test this hypothesis? (Methodology, participants, data gathering, analysis) Collecting and analyzing the data Interpreting the results and forming conclusions-does the evidence support the hypothesis

Basic Research Plan

Types of Research Questions 1) descriptive 2) difference questions 3) relationships

Theory Theories provide order to facts and a framework of generalization Theory – belief or assumption about how things relate to each other – often used for cause and effect statements Often have not relied on theory and instead used empiricism

Basic Research Concepts Variables -any characteristic that varies (i.e., more than one value) Can be: Categorical or numerical Discrete or continuous

Types of Variables in Research Independent (IV) Dependent (DV) Extraneous (EV)

Types of Research Problems Basic Research –essential for the development of theory –motivated by intellectual curiosity –no immediate practical utility Applied Research –answer an immediate practical problem –often apply the findings of basic research

Types of Research Quantitative – THE truth is out there Qualitative – multiple truths

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