2 Learning Objective 1List the steps in conducting quantitative research
3 Quantitative vs Qualitative Quantitative research: is concerned with objectivity, tight controls over the research situation, and the ability to generalize findings.Qualitative research: is concerned with the subjective meaning of an experience to an individual.
4 Quantitative Research Steps Number varies from author to authorMacnee (2004)= uses 5 stepsStommel &Wills (2004)= identified 9 stepsBurns & Grove(2005)= listed 17 stepsPolit and Beck (2004)= identified 18 stepsAuthors combine several steps into one step
5 Scientific Research Process Occurs always in an orderly fashionConsists of a number of steps
8 Steps for Quantitative Research Identify the problemDetermine the purpose of the studyReview the literatureDevelop a theoretical/conceptual frameworkIdentify the study assumptionsAcknowledge the limitations of the studyFormulate the hypothesis or research questionDefine study variables/terms
9 Steps for Quantitative Research Select the research designIdentify the populationSelect the sampleConduct a pilot studyCollect the dataOrganize the data for analysisAnalyze the data
10 Steps for Quantitative Research Interpret the findingsCommunicate the findingsUtilize the findings
11 Learning Objective 2Discuss the steps in quantitative research
12 Identify the Problem Start with broad topic area Narrow to specific problem statement
13 Identify the Problem Get study problem from Personal experiences Literature sourcesPrior researchTheory testing
14 Identify the Problem State problem as a question Include population and variables
15 Concepts and Constructs Concepts are abstractions of particular aspects of human behavior or characteristics (e.g., pain, weight).Constructs are slightly more complex abstractions (e.g., self-care).Theories and conceptual models knit concepts into a coherent system that purports to explain phenomena.
16 VariableA characteristic or quality that takes on different values, i.e., that varies from one person to the nextExamples:Blood typeWeightLength of stay in hospitalTerm “variable” is used almost exclusively in quantitative research
17 Types of VariablesContinuous (e.g. height, weight) vs. categorical (e.g., marital status, gender)Attribute variable vs. created variableIndependent variable—the presumed cause (of a dependent variable)Dependent variable—the presumed effect (of an independent variable)Often referred to as the outcome variable or outcomeExample: Smoking (IV) Lung cancer (DV)
18 Determine the Purpose Difference between purpose and problem Problem tells what is studiedPurpose tells why study is doneStudies may have one or both
19 Review the Literature Finds out what exists on the topic Helps look at theory/frameworkHelps address the study methods
20 Review the Literature Search a variety of sources IndexesAbstractsDissertationsComputer searchesContinue until time to collect data
21 Develop a Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Research helps test, develop, refine theoriesProcess assists in selection of study variablesDirects the hypothesis and interprets findingsAnswers the “so what” question(s)Adds to our nursing body of knowledge
22 Identify the Study Assumptions Assumptions are beliefs held to be true but not provenEach research study is based upon assumptions
23 Identify the Study Assumptions Assumptions are necessary becauseInfluence the questions askedAffect the data gatheredHelp with methods of data collectionAssist in the interpretation of the data
24 Three Types of Study Assumptions Universal assumptionTheory or research assumptionsAssumptions needed to do the studyCommon sense assumptions
25 Acknowledge the Limitations of the Study Limitations are uncontrolled variablesAffect study resultsLimit generalization of the findingsExtraneous variablesExplain limitations at end of study
26 Formulate Hypothesis or Research Question Hypothesis predicts relationships between variablesHypothesis provides predicted answer to questionHypothesis contains two types of variablesIndependent variableDependent variable
27 Formulate Hypothesis or Research Question Hypothesis is testable empiricallyTypes of hypothesis varyHypothesis mostly in quantitative studiesDirectionalNondirectionalThe Null hypothesis
28 Define the Study Variables/Terms They must be clear to researcher and readerThe definitions may beDictionaryTheoreticalOperationalThe operational definition: indicates how a variable will be observed and measured.It includes the instrument will be used to measure the variables.
29 Select the Research Design Helps determine how study is plannedVaries with the type of study conductedQuantitative vs. qualitativeExperimental vs. non-experimentalExperimental may be dividedTrue experimentalQuasi-experimentalPre-experimental
31 Identify the Population Is a complete set of individuals or objects that have some common characteristic of interest to the researcher.Target or the universe: is made up of the group of people or objects to which the researcher wishes to generalize the findings of a study.Accessible: group that actually available for study.
32 Select the Sample A subgroup of the population It represents the populationIt helps with generalization
33 Select the Sample Types of samples Voluntary aspect of participation Probability samples: chosen by random selection process in which each member of the population has a chance of being in the sample.Nonprobability samplesVoluntary aspect of participationPermission secured and rights protected
34 Conduct a Pilot Study Similar in all aspects of the study It helps examine issuesDesignSample sizeData collection proceduresData analysis approaches
35 Conduct a Pilot Study It helps tests/evaluates instruments Revisions made after pilot is completed
36 Collect the Data Data are the pieces of information or facts Data collection procedures are followed
37 Collect the Data Questions asked are What data? How is it collected? Who collects the data?Where is it collected?When will it be collected?
38 Organize the Data for Analysis This step is planned from the beginningIt uses the help of a statisticianDecisions are made about missing data
39 Analyze the Data The process is easier now Data is placed into computerized statistical packagesResults are analyzed
40 Interpret the Findings Do the data support the research hypothesis?Do the data not support the research hypothesis?Problems encountered are discussedLimitations of the study are presentedResults are compared with other studiesImplications are identifiedRecommendations are proposed
41 Communicate the Findings A very critical component of the processA variety of ways are usedJournalsPresentationsPosters
42 Utilize the Findings Recommendations need considerations Integration into practice are critical componentsResearcher may act as a consultant for using findingsResearcher must disseminate findings in many ways