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Published bySabrina Gardner Modified over 4 years ago

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**Chapter 3 An Overview of Quantitative Research**

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Learning Objective 1 List the steps in conducting quantitative research

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**Quantitative vs Qualitative**

Quantitative research: is concerned with objectivity, tight controls over the research situation, and the ability to generalize findings. Qualitative research: is concerned with the subjective meaning of an experience to an individual.

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**Quantitative Research Steps**

Number varies from author to author Macnee (2004)= uses 5 steps Stommel &Wills (2004)= identified 9 steps Burns & Grove(2005)= listed 17 steps Polit and Beck (2004)= identified 18 steps Authors combine several steps into one step

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**Scientific Research Process**

Occurs always in an orderly fashion Consists of a number of steps

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Quantitative

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Qualitative

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**Steps for Quantitative Research**

Identify the problem Determine the purpose of the study Review the literature Develop a theoretical/conceptual framework Identify the study assumptions Acknowledge the limitations of the study Formulate the hypothesis or research question Define study variables/terms

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**Steps for Quantitative Research**

Select the research design Identify the population Select the sample Conduct a pilot study Collect the data Organize the data for analysis Analyze the data

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**Steps for Quantitative Research**

Interpret the findings Communicate the findings Utilize the findings

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Learning Objective 2 Discuss the steps in quantitative research

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**Identify the Problem Start with broad topic area**

Narrow to specific problem statement

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**Identify the Problem Get study problem from Personal experiences**

Literature sources Prior research Theory testing

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**Identify the Problem State problem as a question**

Include population and variables

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**Concepts and Constructs**

Concepts are abstractions of particular aspects of human behavior or characteristics (e.g., pain, weight). Constructs are slightly more complex abstractions (e.g., self-care). Theories and conceptual models knit concepts into a coherent system that purports to explain phenomena.

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Variable A characteristic or quality that takes on different values, i.e., that varies from one person to the next Examples: Blood type Weight Length of stay in hospital Term “variable” is used almost exclusively in quantitative research

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Types of Variables Continuous (e.g. height, weight) vs. categorical (e.g., marital status, gender) Attribute variable vs. created variable Independent variable—the presumed cause (of a dependent variable) Dependent variable—the presumed effect (of an independent variable) Often referred to as the outcome variable or outcome Example: Smoking (IV) Lung cancer (DV)

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**Determine the Purpose Difference between purpose and problem**

Problem tells what is studied Purpose tells why study is done Studies may have one or both

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**Review the Literature Finds out what exists on the topic**

Helps look at theory/framework Helps address the study methods

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**Review the Literature Search a variety of sources**

Indexes Abstracts Dissertations Computer searches Continue until time to collect data

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**Develop a Theoretical/Conceptual Framework**

Research helps test, develop, refine theories Process assists in selection of study variables Directs the hypothesis and interprets findings Answers the “so what” question(s) Adds to our nursing body of knowledge

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**Identify the Study Assumptions**

Assumptions are beliefs held to be true but not proven Each research study is based upon assumptions

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**Identify the Study Assumptions**

Assumptions are necessary because Influence the questions asked Affect the data gathered Help with methods of data collection Assist in the interpretation of the data

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**Three Types of Study Assumptions**

Universal assumption Theory or research assumptions Assumptions needed to do the study Common sense assumptions

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**Acknowledge the Limitations of the Study**

Limitations are uncontrolled variables Affect study results Limit generalization of the findings Extraneous variables Explain limitations at end of study

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**Formulate Hypothesis or Research Question**

Hypothesis predicts relationships between variables Hypothesis provides predicted answer to question Hypothesis contains two types of variables Independent variable Dependent variable

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**Formulate Hypothesis or Research Question**

Hypothesis is testable empirically Types of hypothesis vary Hypothesis mostly in quantitative studies Directional Nondirectional The Null hypothesis

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**Define the Study Variables/Terms**

They must be clear to researcher and reader The definitions may be Dictionary Theoretical Operational The operational definition: indicates how a variable will be observed and measured. It includes the instrument will be used to measure the variables.

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**Select the Research Design**

Helps determine how study is planned Varies with the type of study conducted Quantitative vs. qualitative Experimental vs. non-experimental Experimental may be divided True experimental Quasi-experimental Pre-experimental

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**Non-experimental designs:**

Survey studies Correlational studies Comparative studies Methodological studies

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**Identify the Population**

Is a complete set of individuals or objects that have some common characteristic of interest to the researcher. Target or the universe: is made up of the group of people or objects to which the researcher wishes to generalize the findings of a study. Accessible: group that actually available for study.

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**Select the Sample A subgroup of the population**

It represents the population It helps with generalization

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**Select the Sample Types of samples Voluntary aspect of participation**

Probability samples: chosen by random selection process in which each member of the population has a chance of being in the sample. Nonprobability samples Voluntary aspect of participation Permission secured and rights protected

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**Conduct a Pilot Study Similar in all aspects of the study**

It helps examine issues Design Sample size Data collection procedures Data analysis approaches

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**Conduct a Pilot Study It helps tests/evaluates instruments**

Revisions made after pilot is completed

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**Collect the Data Data are the pieces of information or facts**

Data collection procedures are followed

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**Collect the Data Questions asked are What data? How is it collected?**

Who collects the data? Where is it collected? When will it be collected?

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**Organize the Data for Analysis**

This step is planned from the beginning It uses the help of a statistician Decisions are made about missing data

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**Analyze the Data The process is easier now**

Data is placed into computerized statistical packages Results are analyzed

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**Interpret the Findings**

Do the data support the research hypothesis? Do the data not support the research hypothesis? Problems encountered are discussed Limitations of the study are presented Results are compared with other studies Implications are identified Recommendations are proposed

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**Communicate the Findings**

A very critical component of the process A variety of ways are used Journals Presentations Posters

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**Utilize the Findings Recommendations need considerations**

Integration into practice are critical components Researcher may act as a consultant for using findings Researcher must disseminate findings in many ways

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