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Presentation on theme: "HIV/AIDS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Definitions HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus – A pathogen that destroys infection-fighting T cells in the body. AIDS – Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome – A condition that results after a person becomes infected with HIV. You can’t catch ADS, AIDS develops after HIV has inflicted enough destruction of the body cells.

3 Words to Know: Lymphocytes – White blood cells that help the body fight pathogens. They multiply in lymph tissues in order to fight infections B Cells – A white blood cell that produces antibodies Helper T Cells – A white blood cell that signals B cells to produce antibodies Antibody – A special protein that helps fight infection

4 How HIV Works When HIV enters the body it attaches to the helper T cells HIV takes control of the helper T cells and produces more HIV As HIV reproduces, it takes control of the other helper T cells Helper T cells are now unable to attach and kill other pathogens that enter the body

5 Signs and Symptoms of HIV
Flu-like symptoms Fever Diarrhea Sore Throat Skin Rash Swollen Glands Loss of Appetite Night Sweats

6 More about Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms may come and go as the helper T cell count fluctuates Many people will not develop severe symptoms for years As the helper T cell count drops, the person becomes more susceptible to many opportunistic infections Opportunistic Infections – An infection that develops in a person with a weak immune system.

7 Opportunistic Infections from HIV
Thrush – Is a fungal infection of the mucous membrane of the tongue and mouth. Causes white spots and ulcers. Kaposi’s Sarcoma – Is a type of cancer that causes purplish lesions and tumors on the skin and linings of internal organs. AIDS Dementia Complex – Loss of brain function HIV Wasting Syndrome – Substantial loss of body weight that is accompanied by high fevers, sweating and diarrhea

8 Facts About HIV Roughly 40,000 people in the US become infected with HIV each year ¼ to 1/3 do not know they are infected People with or without symptoms can pass the virus to others Many people do not show symptoms for many years after infection

9 When HIV becomes AIDS According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) a person infected with HIV who has 200 or fewer helper T cells per microliter of blood or an opportunistic infection is diagnosed with AIDS

10 How is HIV Spread? Through contact with certain bodily fluids which include: Blood Semen Vaginal Secretions Few cases through breast milk **To date no documented cases are from transmission through saliva and tears

11 Risk Behaviors that May Lead to HIV
Sexual Contact Open Mouth Kissing – Although risk of transmission this way is low Sharing Needles/Syringes for injectable drugs Sharing Needles for Tattoos or Piercings Contact with the blood, other bodily fluid or mucous membranes Blood Transfusion w/ infected person Tissue Transplant (organ donation) Being born to a mother infected

12 How to Avoid HIV Abstain from sex until you are married
Get tested for HIV if you have been sexually active Have your partner get tested for HIV Choose a drug-free lifestyle Avoid sharing needles used for tattoos and/or piercings

13 HIV/AIDS Treatments **There is no cure for HIV or AIDS**
Treatment focuses on slowing the progression of the virus Early treatment is critical in slowing the rate at which HIV multiplies Typically 8-10 years until AIDS occurs Drugs are used to slow the progression although there are serious side effects from some of the drugs

14 HIV Tests Antibody test – Detects HIV antibodies in the blood
Usually show up in the blood after 3 months of having the infection but can take up to 6 months If a test is confirmed as positive it is repeated to confirm the results Western Blot – Used once an antibody test has come back positive Home Testing – The FDA has approved home testing for antibodies that gets mailed to a lab for testing

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