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Humans & the Environment Unit 8 : Ecology Mrs. Kasprowicz Miss Squires.

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Presentation on theme: "Humans & the Environment Unit 8 : Ecology Mrs. Kasprowicz Miss Squires."— Presentation transcript:

1 Humans & the Environment Unit 8 : Ecology Mrs. Kasprowicz Miss Squires

2 Human Population Growth The human population is still growing  it has not yet reached its carrying capacity.

3 Human Population Growth Causes :

4 Human Population Growth Effects :

5 Key Idea The Earth has FINITE resources What does finite mean? Increasing population  increased consumption of renewable & non-renewable resources

6 Renewable Resources natural resources that can be replaced at the same rate at which they are used Non-Renewable Resources natural resources that cannot be replaced or take thousands (or more) of years to replace

7 Renewable or Non-renewable??

8 Direct Harvest Causes : Removing organisms in large amounts from a particular habitat ie. Deforestation, whale hunting, poaching

9 Direct Harvest Effects : disrupt ecosystem stability (affects food web) decrease biodiversity extinction of species

10 Direct Harvest Ways to Prevent/Fix : re-plant trees cut down laws to protect endangered species management strategies that balance economic gain w/ wildlife population maintenance

11 Habitat Destruction Causes: Increased human population Urbanization Acquiring natural resources pollution Example : deforestation (particularly rainforests)

12 Habitat Destruction Effects: Decrease food, shelter, etc…for other organisms Species extinction Loss of biodiversity Disrupts food chains/webs

13 Habitat Destruction Prevention/Fix: decrease pollution slower & smarter land development education setting up protected areas

14 Imported (Exotic) or Invasive Species Cause : accidental or purposeful addition of a new species into a given environment Zebra mussels Japanese beetles Sea lampreys Asian carp

15 Imported (Exotic) or Invasive Species Purple loosestrife Reed grass Kudzu plants

16 Imported (Exotic) or Invasive Species Effects : Compete with native species for limited resources & WIN (lack of predators or natural “checks & balances”) Disrupts existing food chains/webs Economic impact (removal costs, habitat restoration, etc…)

17 Imported or Invasive Species Fix: Direct removal Chemical control herbicides, insecticides, pesticides What is the problem with this method?

18 Imported (Exotic) or Invasive Species Biological control methods introduction of a natural enemy of the invasive species OR using a plant-based chemicals to control the pest

19 Water Pollution : Eutrophication Cause: Nutrients from fertilizers/sewage/ detergents enter the water (N, K, P) Effects: algae blooms  lack of oxygen  death of Organisms (“dead zones”)

20 Water Pollution : Eutrophication


22 Prevention/Fix: better sewage treatment phosphate-free detergents farming practices that replenish soil nutrients naturally (crop rotation)

23 Water Pollution : Thermal Pollution Causes: warm/hot water from factories discharged into lake/river ie. waste water used to cool nuclear power plants

24 Water Pollution : Thermal Pollution Effects: Increased water temperature  decrease in O 2  dead plants and animals (dead zones)

25 Water Pollution : Thermal Pollution Prevention/Fix: Reuse hot waste water to heat factory Retaining ponds / cooling towers Laws to regulate temp & timing of discharge

26 Air Pollution : Acid Rain Cause: Burning fossil fuels creates gases that, when combined with water, create acid rain ie. SO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 4 (sulfuric acid) NO + H 2 O  HNO 3 (nitric acid)

27 Air Pollution : Acid Rain Effects: Decrease pH of lakes/streams  kills pH- sensitive organisms  “dead zone” Soil acidification  kills trees [overall loss of biodiversity]

28 Air Pollution : Acid Rain Prevention/Fix: Decrease use of fossil fuels Clean Air Act (1990) - limits acid rain-causing pollutants

29 Air Pollution : Acid Rain The source of the pollution is often far away from the area affected by the pollution. ie. Industrial cities around Great Lakes formed pollution that affected places to the East such as the Adirondacks

30 Air Pollution : Global Warming Causes: Burning fossil fuels creates CO2 and other “greenhouse” gases, such as methane

31 Air Pollution : Global Warming Causes: Burning fossil fuels creates CO2 and other “greenhouse” gases, such as methane

32 Air Pollution : Global Warming Cause: “greenhouse effect”  increased CO 2 traps heat in the atmosphere  increase average temperatures around the world

33 Air Pollution : Global Warming Effects: Increased average global temperatures  - ice melts at the Poles - increased sea levels - stronger storms - more severe flooding/droughts - collapse of ecosystems - decrease freshwater resources

34 Air Pollution : Global Warming

35 Prevention/Fix: Using alternative energy sources (solar, wind, hydro, nuclear, etc…) Be aware of your “carbon footprint” Drive less (public transport, biking, car pool) Conserve energy (turn off lights, set thermostat lower) Reduce, reuse, recycle

36 Air Pollution : Ozone Loss Causes: Chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) from aerosol cans & other industrial uses

37 Air Pollution : Ozone Loss Effects: Ozone protects organisms from UV radiation Less ozone  mutations  increase skin cancers

38 Air Pollution : Ozone Loss Fix/Prevention: Montreal Protocol guidelines signed by a # of industrialized countries that decreased CFC production & emission

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