Presentation on theme: "Lecture 2 THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT Cognitive Development, Psychosocial Development and Moral Development."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 2 THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT Cognitive Development, Psychosocial Development and Moral Development
Purpose Understanding of the students ’ development on the Physical ， cognition, and social-emotional development
Main Contents Piaget ’ s View of Cognitive Development VYGOTSKY ’ s View of Cognitive Development Erikson ’ s view of personal and social development Kohlberg ’ s stages of Moral Reasoning
Part 1 Issues of Development Piaget ’ s View of Cognitive Development
A Definition of Development Creative Thinking (get into groups) Think about terms of Changing and Development. As human beings, what kinds of changing you can see and what you can’t see? Are they all means the development during the lifetime?
1.understanding: The term DEVELOPMENT in its most general psychological sense refers to certain changes that occur in human beings between conception and death. The term is not applied to all changes, but rather to those that appear in orderly way and remain for a reasonably long period of time.
2 kinds of develpment Physical development, deal with the changes in the body; Personal development, means the changes in an individual ’ s personality; Social development refers to changes in the way an individual relates to others; Cognitive development refers to changes in thinking
General Principles of Development PPeople develop at different rates. DDevelopment is relatively orderly. DDevelopment takes place gradually.
Piaget ’ s Theory of Cognitive Development Brief Introduction Some very important concepts in his cognitive theory How Cognitive Development Occurs Four stages of Cognitive development Educational Implications of Piaget’s Theory
Brief Introduction Jean Piaget, born in Switzerland in 1896, is the most influential developmental psychologist in the history of psychology
How Cognitive Development Occurs? Cognitive Development is gradual ， orderly, changes by which mental process become more complex and sophisticated. The essential development of cognition is the establishment of new schemes. Assimilation and accommodation are both processing of the ways of cognitive development. The equilibration is the symbol of a new stage of the cognitive development.
Stages of Cognitive development Stages of Cognitive development Remember: Piaget divided the cognitive development of children and adolescents into four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. All children pass through these stages in this order and that no child can skip a stage Different children may pass through the stages at some what different rates
Stage 3 Concrete Operational (7-11) Acquire the concept of reversibility. Respond to inferred( 推理的 )reality Seriation Classification Objective Thinking( 客观化思维 )
Respond to inferred reality Flavell (1986) demonstrated this concept by showing children a red car and then, while they were still watching, covering it with a filter that made it appear black. When asked what color the car was, 3-year-olds responded "black," and 6-year-olds responded "red." The older, concrete operational child is able to respond to inferred reality, seeing things in the context of other meanings; preschoolers see what they see, with little ability to infer the meaning behind what they see.
Seriation (P37-3)lining up sticks from smallest to largest. transitivity
Classification Classification depends on a student's abilities to focus on a single characteristic of objects in a set and group the objects according to that characteristic Given 12 objects of assorted ( 混合的 )colors and shapes, the concrete-operational student can invariably pick out the ones that are round.
Stage 4 Formal Operational (11 - adulthood) Children's thinking begins to develop into the form that is characteristic of adults Hypothetical conditions the ability to reason about situations and conditions that have not been experienced.
Creative Thinking: (Working in groups:) How can we put the Piaget ’ s theory into our educational practice?
5. Educational Implications of Piaget’s Theory PPage 43 UUnderstanding Students' Thinking MMatching Strategies to Abilities CConstructing Knowledge
Vygotsky ’ s View of Cognitive Development Brief Introduction Key ideas (Social-cultural theory ) Difference to Piaget ’ s view Application in Education Part 2
Brief Introduction Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who, though a contemporary of Piaget, died in 1934, only 38 when he died of tuberculosis, but he had produced over 100 books and articles ……
Key ideas (Social-cultural theory ) he proposed that intellectual development can be understood only in terms of the historical and cultural contexts children experience In contrast to Piaget, Vygotaky proposed that cognitive development is strongly linked to input from others. he believed that development depends on the sign systems that individuals grow up with ZPD (THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT ) SCAFFOLDING
For example A six-year-old has lost a toy and asks her father for help. The father asks her where she last saw the toy; the child says : “ I can't remember." He asks a series of questions: Did you have it in your room? Outside? Next door? To each question, the child answers, no.' When he says "in the car?" she says "1 think so" and goes to retrieve the toy.
Difference to Piaget ’ s view Creative Thinking: What are the differences between Piagtet’s and Vygotsky’s theores of Egocentric and Private Speech ?
Application in Education Brainstorming: How to put V ’ s theory in Educational Practice?
Application in Education zone of proximal development scaffolding (Vedio 49min)
Self Learning Part 3 How Did Erikson View Personal and Social Development? the basic ideas of Erikson ’ s Personal and Social Development The stages of Personal and Social Development Implications of Erikson ’ s theory
the basic ideas of Erikson ’ s Personal and Social Development Erikson ’ s hypothesized that people pass eight psychological stage in their lifetime. At each stage, there are crises or critical issues to be resolved. Most people resolve each psycholoscial crisis satisfactorily and put it behand them to take on new challenges, some people may not completely resolve these crises and must continue to deal with them later in life.
The stages of Personal and Social Development Stage approximate ages Psychological crises 1 birth to 18months Trust vis. misturst 2 18m to 3years Autonomy vs. doubt 3 3 to 6 years Initiative vs. guilt 4 6 to 12 years Industry vs. inferiority 5 12 to 18 years Identity vs. role confusion 6 Young adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation 7 Middle adulthood Generativity vs. self-absorption 8 Late adulthood Integrity vs. despair
Self Learning Part 4 Kohlberg ’ s stages of Moral Resoning the basic ideas of Kohlberg’s stages of Moral Resoning The stages of Moral Resoning Implications of Kohlberg’s theory