Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Development: Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories Chapter 3Cognitive Development: Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories
2 The proposition underlying a constructivist approach is that children must construct their own understandings of the world in which they live.
3 Constructivism is the basis for many current reforms in education.
4 Piaget had a major impact on the way we think about children’s development.
5 Piaget taught us that children act as “little scientists,” trying to make sense of their world.
6 Children have their own logic and ways of knowing, which follow predictable patterns of development as children biologically mature and interact with the world.
7 Piaget was an early constructivist theorist in psychology.
8 Piaget believed that children actively construct their own knowledge of the environment using what they already know to interpret new events and objects.
9 Piaget was a stage theorist who divided cognitive development into four major stages: sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, and formal operations.
10 At each of Piaget’s stages of development, children’s thinking is assumed to be qualitatively different from their thinking at other stages.
11 Piaget proposed that cognitive development occurs in an invariant sequence.
12 Schemes are sets of physical actions, mental operations, concepts, or theories people use to acquire and organize information about their world.
13 Piaget distinguished between three types of knowledge: Physical knowledgeLogico-mathematical knowledgeSocial knowledge
14 In Piaget’s theory two basic principles guide children’s intellectual development: organization and adaptation
15 A Child’s Representation of “Eight” in Piaget’s Theory (Figure 3.1)
16 Piaget used the terms assimilation and accommodation to describe how children adapt to their environment.
17 Through the process of assimilation children mold new information to fit their existing schemes.
18 The process of changing existing schemata is called accommodation.
19 As an interactional theorist, Piaget viewed development as a complex interaction of innate and environmental factors.
20 According to Piaget, the following four factors contribute to children’s cognitive development: • maturation of inherited physical structures• physical experiences with the environment• social transmission of information and knowledge• equilibration