Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1/ Sec. 2 (Theories). A theory - an orderly, integrated set of statements that are cohesive; the statements describe, explain, and predict human."— Presentation transcript:
A theory - an orderly, integrated set of statements that are cohesive; the statements describe, explain, and predict human behavior. Helps us understand, describe, respond & predict…
The Classic Theories Psychodynamic Theories: i. Sigmund Freud ii. Erik Erikson Constructivist Theories: i. Jean Piaget ii. Lev Vygotsky
Recent Theories Systems Theories: i. Urie Bronfenbrenner
Category: Classic Theory Sub-Category: Psychodynamic Theory Theorist: Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Name of theory: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Trust vs. Mistrust: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt: Initiative vs. Guilt: Industry vs. Inferiority: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence): Intimacy vs. Isolation (Early Adulthood): Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood): Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Later Adulthood):
Category: Classic Theory Sub-Category: Constructivist Theory Theorist: Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) Name of theory: Piaget’s Cognitive (Constructivist) Theory
Stages (refer to Table 1.3, p. 24) Sensorimotor Pre-Operational Concrete operational Formal operational We will go into detail about the characteristics of each stage, as the semester continues; this is just a preview
Terms Schemes- any action pattern (cognitive structure) for dealing with the environment. Assimilation- new information into our existing schemes. Accommodation- when information does not fit into existing scheme; one changes a scheme to adapt to the new information, which may involve creating a new scheme.
Category: Classic Theory Sub-Category: Constructivist Theory Theorist: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) Name of theory: Social Constructivist Theory A Russian Psychologist “Sociocultural theory” of development: Social: Cultural:
- Humans have a biological need & capacity for tool use and production. - “Physical tools” = master the environment; “psychological tools” = master behavior. - Psychological tools Includes…
Terms: “ZPD” & Scaffolding ZPD Scaffolding Zone of Proximal Development A teaching style which includes…
Category: Recent Theory Sub-Category: Systems Theory Theorist: Urie Bronfenbrenner’s (1917-2005) Name of theory: Ecological Systems Theory
Microsystem Interactions in the child’s immediate environment (daily lives).
Mesosystem Exosystem Interactions among various microsystems. Social settings that have an indirect influence on the child...
Macrosystem-culture (subculture) values, laws, customs, & economics & government systems. Chronosystem –is not a level, but refers to a dimension of “time”…one’s personal history