Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 POPULATION STUDIES"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 8 POPULATION STUDIES POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, Diversity and Change
2 Learning outcomesin this chapter you will learn that:The population cycle explains how birth and death rates change over timePopulation density varies from place to placeA country’s population structure is shown on a “Population Pyramid”High densities and low densities have social and economic effectsPoor countries have higher death rates than rich countries
3 POPULATION DENSITYTHE WORLDS POPULATION IS 6BILLION SOME AREA ARE: VERY DENSELY POPULATED……A LOT OF PEOPLE LIVE IN CERTAIN PLACES VERY SPARSLY POPULATED…..NOT MANY PEOPLE LIVE THERE.
4 TERMSPOPULATION DENSITY: THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF PEOPLE PER SQUARE KILOMETREPOPULATION DISTRIBUTION: WHERE ALL THE PEOPLE LIVE IN AN AREA
5 Large population areas include Pakistan, India, china, Malaysia, Indonesia,
6 FOUR AREAS OF HIGH POPULATION DENSITY ARE: NOTRH-EAST AMERICAWESTERN EUROPEINDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESHCHINA, JAPAN, INDONESIA
9 What is the population of Ireland in 2005? Ireland’s population 4.1 million
10 What is the population of the world in 2005? World population 6,477 millionOver six billion people living in the world
11 How big is this figure? One billion = One thousand million It would take you eleven days to count to one million if you allowed one second for every number you counted
12 Population growth In the past, population growth was slow and uneven. Populations fluctuated because of wars, famine, disease.People were dying because of a lack of medicine
13 Today’s population growth The population of the world is growing:by over 200,000 people every day This means that the birth rates are greater than the death rates = the population growsThe birth rate is the number of babies born per year for every 1,000 people in the total populationThe death rate is the numbers of people dying per year for every 1,000 people in the total populationWhat happens to the population if the death rates are higher than the birth rates??
14 How do you calculate the population growth? 40 people are born15 people die40 – 15 = 25 per 1,00025/1000 x100% = 2.5 % per year
15 Where is the population growth happening in the world? Today most of the population growth is in developing countries: Asia and AfricaThis is because people in poorer countries regard children as a source of income. When they retire, their children can provide a wage to help support their family
16 POPULATION GROWTHIN RICH COUNTRIES TODAY THE POPULATIONS ARE GROWING SLOWLYIN POOR COUNTRIES TODAY THE POPULATIONS ARE GETTING BIGGER VERY QUICKLY
20 STAGE ONE200 YEARS AGO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION HAD NOT STARTED IN EUROPEMOST PEOPLE LIVED IN THE COUNTRYSIDE AND WERE FARMERSBIRTH RATES AND DEATH RATES WERE VERY HIGH. Famine, disease and natural disasters caused high death rates
21 STAGE TWOAs the economy of a country improves, the government spend money on health services and clean water is availableBirth rates remain highDeath rates begin to fallThe population begins to grow
22 STAGE THREEEconomic growth continues; People are more educated and they begin to plan family sizes.Families have fewer children so the birth rates begins to fallDeath rates are still low
23 STAGE FOUR Countries are wealthy in this stage. Parents continue to plan their family sizeBirth rates are lowDeath rates are low as most people survive to old ageIreland is considered to be at this stage now
24 Stage 5The death rate is higher than the birth rate because the population is now elderlyWomen are having fewer childrenGermany is at this stage now
25 Factors that affect population change Food SupplyImproved TechnologyHealthWarStatus of WomenEducation
27 Examples of food supply affecting populations in Ireland and Brazil 1800 Ireland had population of 4.5 millionPotato was main food.By 1845 population grew to 8 millionfamine. 1 million died1900 Brazil: population was 17 million2007 population was 192 million. Why?Immigration and high birth ratesFarmers cleared land for agriculture-rice, maize, vegetables and fruit
28 2. Improved Technology helps with population growth
30 Examples of how health is different in rich and poor countries Rich country: water supply available: Safe drinking water and sanitationDisease such as Tuberculosis has been wiped out due to availability of medicationPoor countries: Water not available in rural areas. They have a well which is unsafe-contaminated by animals….cholera
31 Population PyramidsPopulation pyramids show the structure of the populationAge structure of the population. This is the proportion of people in different age groups.Sex structure of the population. This is the proportion of males to females.
32 The population pyramid displays the age POPULATION STRUCTUREThe population pyramid displays the ageand sex structure of a country or given areaOLD DEPENDANTSECONOMICALLYACTIVEYOUNGDEPENDANTSPopulation inFive YearAge bandsFEMALESTo the rightMALESTo the leftUsually, but not always,In % to make for easiercomparisonsbetween countries
39 Brazil is a country with a rapidly expanding poulation. A wide base tells us that birth rates are high:Lack of family planning, high rate of infant mortality, traditional role of women in societyA narrow peak tells us that death rates are high: this is because ofpoor living standards, lack of good food, poor medical services, lack of clean water
41 Germany is a developed country A narrow base indicates low birth rates.This is because of high rates of education = family planning, low infant mortality rates, women work outside the home, good access to medical services, Germany is industrialised so children are not needed to work in the primary sector (digging fields, mines)A wide peak indicates low death rates: this is due to high living standards, good medical services and a developed economy
43 Ireland is a developed economy A narrow base indicates low birth rates but there is an increase in the 0-4 age category in irelandThe reasons are the same as Germany..education/family planning…The wide peak indicates low death rates as older people live longer. Life expectancy is high. Women live on average to 80 yrs and 75 for men in IrelandWhy?
44 Life ExpectancyLife expectancy is the average number of years which new born children can be expected to live.
46 Let’s look at page 215 of our book: Question 2 which pyramid represents a developing country and why? Calculate the percentage of the population that is 4 years and under.
47 Question 1 on page 215: look at the information on the table and answer the following questions (B) IN WHICH TABLE ARE THE 2 DEVELOPED COUNTRIES? (B) WHICH IS THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRY?countryBirth rates per 1000Death rates per 1000% population under 15 yearsA131219B421639C32841D922E44
48 2012 junior cert geography paper Name 1 country similar to A name one country similar to B explain why B has wider base than A name 2 uses of population pyramids
49 Population density and population distribution Population density = average number of people living in a square kilometre. Areas with high population densities can have problems such as overcrowding, lack of clean water, pollution and lack of open spacesPopulation distribution = the dispersion of people around the world: where people live. It is very uneven. People avoid very hot, dry, humid or cold areas. Example-Sahara desert, Greenland
51 Percentage share of worlds population by continent
52 Lets recap what we did the last day What information do population pyramids give us?Describe what a pyramid for a developing country would look likeDescribe what a pyramid for a less developed country would look likeWhy do these countries have high birth rates?
53 Here is an interesting article from Saturday’s Irish Times Listen to this article and make notes about anything that strikes youThis article is about one of the most dangerous places in the world to have a babySierra LeoneHigh rates of maternal and infant mortality
54 At the end of todays class you will be able to: Explain what a high population density meanslist the problems that are caused by high densityDescribe life in KolkataExamine and discuss the problems caused by overcrowding in Kolkata
55 High population densities Overpopulation means that there are too many people living in an area relative to resources and technology to provide an adequate standard of livingAn adequate standard of living means having access to clean water, shelter, food and clothingAreas with high population densities include Kolkata (Calcutta) India and Hong Kong (China)
56 High population density has an effect on the social and economic geography of an area.
57 Kolkata was the new name given to Calcutta in 2001 Kolkata is in India and has one of the world’s largest populationsIt has over 10 million people and is called a MEGA CITYmany areas have 32,000 people per square kilometre500,000 people are pavement dwellersIt is a manufacturing city with a large port
58 A day in the life of the real slumdog millionaires India