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Population Cultural Geography C.J. Cox

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Population ● Population Terms ● Population Growth ● Population Distribution ● Population Density ● Population Characteristics ● Population Pyramids ● Demographic Transition ● Solutions to Population Growth

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Population Terms ● Demography - the study of population characteristics ● Overpopulation- when the available resources cannot support the number of people ● Density - How many? The total number of people

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Population Growth ● 0 AD 250 Million People ● 1803 AD 1 Billion People ● 1903 AD 1.6 Billion People ● 1950 AD 3.0 Billion People ● 1987 AD 5.0 Billion People ● 1998 AD 6.0 Billion People

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Population Distribution ● Population Concentrations –East Asia –South Asia –South East Asia –Europe –North America ● Sparsely Populated Regions –dry lands –wet lands –high lands –cold lands

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Population ● Population Terms ● Population Growth ● Population Distribution ● Population Density ● Population Characteristics ● Population Pyramids ● Demographic Transition ● Solutions to Population Growth

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Arithmetic Density: The total number of people divided by the total land area.

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● Arithmetic Density: The total number of people divided by the total land area.

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Arithmetic Density: The total number of people divided by the total land area.

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● Physiological Density: The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.

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● Agricultural Density: The number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.

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Density ● Arithmetic Density: The total number of people divided by the total land area. ● Physiological Density: The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. ● Agricultural Density: The number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.

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Population ● Population Terms ● Population Growth ● Population Distribution ● Population Density ● Population Characteristics ● Population Pyramids ● Demographic Transition ● Solutions to Population Growth

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● Crude Birth Rate : The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

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● Crude Death Rate : The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

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● Natural Increase: The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.

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Population Characteristics ● Crude Birth Rate : The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. ● Crude Death Rate : The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. ● Natural Increase: The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.

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Population Characteristics Fertility Rate: The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years. ● Doubling Time: The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

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● Infant Mortality Rate: - the number of deaths of children under the age of 1, per thousand live births.

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Population Characteristics ● Life Expectancy : The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. ● Population under the age of 15 - usually shown as a percentage of the total population of a country - dependency ages ● Population over the age of 65 - usually shown as a percentage of the population. dependency age

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● Life Expectancy : The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.

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● Population under the age of 15 - usually shown as a percentage of the total population of a country - dependency age is 0-15

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Population ● Population Terms ● Population Growth ● Population Distribution ● Population Density ● Population Characteristics ● Population Pyramids ● Demographic Transition ● Solutions to Population Growth

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Population Pyramids ● Inverted bar graphs that show a wide population base (younger population) with a narrow top (older population). ● Population Pyramids show: –Age Distributions –Dependency Ratios of under 15 and over 65 –Sex Ratio - Male vs. Female

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DevelopingRelatively Developed Developed (poor)(rich)

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Population ● Population Terms ● Population Growth ● Population Distribution ● Population Density ● Population Characteristics ● Population Pyramids ● Demographic Transition ● Solutions to Population Growth

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POPULATION & DEMOGRAPHIC PYRAMIDSTRANSITION

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Demographic Transition - Stage 1 ● Demographic Transition - the change in population characteristics of a country to reflect medical technology or economic and social development. ● Crude Birth Rate: High 40-50 / 1,000 ● Crude Death Rate: High 40-50 / 1,000 ● Natural Increase Rate: None 0 / 1,000 ● Today, no country in the world is in Stage 1.

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Demographic Transition

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Demographic Transition - Stage 2 ● As medical technology is introduced, a population lives longer as the death rate is lower from the rates of stage one. ● Crude Birth Rate: High 40+ / 1,000 ● Crude Death Rate: Lower 15 / 1,000 ● Natural Increase Rate: Very High 25+/1,000

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Demographic Transition - Stage 3 ● As the wealth and education of a country increases, social norms, and use of contraception dictate the birth of fewer children per woman. ● Crude Birth Rate: Lower 20 / 1,000 ● Crude Death Rate: Low 10 / 1,000 ● Natural Increase Rate: Low 10 / 1000

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Demographic Transition - Stage 4 ● As the final stage in the transition of population characteristics, the fourth stage sees the population increase rate again at 0. This stage reflects a highly industrialized, educated society. ● Crude Birth Rate: Low 10 / 1,000 ● Crude Death Rate: Low 10 / 1,000 ● Natural Increase Rate: None 0 / 1,000

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Population ● Population Terms ● Population Growth ● Population Distribution ● Population Density ● Population Characteristics ● Population Pyramids ● Demographic Transition ● Solutions to Population Growth

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Solutions to Population Growth ● Education ● Birth Control ● Socialization ● Abortion ● Sterilization ● Government mandate ● Population redistribution

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Solutions to Population Growth ● Migration to resource rich areas ● Empowerment of Women ● $ for contraception & education ● Improving farming techniques in poor areas ● Sterilization ● Educating men w/ responsibility for birth control ● Changing cultural norms to value girls

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Solutions to Population Growth ● Addressing traditional religious values that may encourage gender preference and large families ● Starvation ● Medical technology - costs of maintaining vulnerable populations (old & young) ● Disease ● Biological Warfare

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Solutions to Population Growth ● Redistribution of wealth - improve standard of living for poor so that children aren’t as necessary ● Addressing government policies to deal with their growing populations ● Environmental pollution causing higher death rates

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Population ● Population Terms ● Population Growth ● Population Distribution ● Population Density ● Population Characteristics ● Population Pyramids ● Demographic Transition ● Solutions to Population Growth

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Population Cultural Geography C.J. Cox

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