3 “Population distributions are descriptions of locations on the Earth’s surface where individuals or groups live.”3
4 What factors influence Population Distribution? Environmental factors-What type of natural resources are in the area? Does it have oil, or arable land or access to water?What is the climate like?Does it have capital resources such as transportation and technology?
5 Economic factors- Political factors- What is the economic development like?What are the resources like?Political factors-What is the government policy?Are there many conflicts?Is it a rural/urban area?
6 Two-thirds of the World’s Population is concentrated in four specific areas. 6
13 “Population Density is the number of people occupying an area of land 13
14 POPULATIONUntil 2003 more than 50% of the world’s population lived in rural areas, but by May 2007 that number changedUnited Nations estimates predict the world will be 53% urban by 2015; 60% urban by 2030U.S. is about 82% urban (Changed in late 1910’s)
15 POPULATION DENSITYUS population density, according to 2011 census estimates, was 88 people per square mileAlaska was lowest with 1.3 people per square mileNew Jersey was largest with 1189 people per square mile
16 World population density is 115 people per sq. mile Asia is the continent with the greatest population density (203/sq.mile); North America 32; Australia 6.4World population density is 115 people per sq. mile
17 What are the characteristics of human populations? Birth and Death rates-How many people per 1000 are born or die in a year?Age Distribution--How many people are in each age category?
18 Male/Female distribution-- Are there more males or more females? Why?Life Expectancy--How old can you expect to live?Infant Mortality--How many children die before their first birthday?
19 Urban /Rural-- GDP-- Ethnicity-- Where do most people live? In the city/country?GDP--Is the country’s GDP high or low?Ethnicity--Does the population have one dominate ethnicity or many and do they get along?
20 Language-- Do the people speak one language or do they have multiple languages? Religion-- Do the people share the same religion or do they have multiple ones?Education-- Are the people highly educated? Can they read & write
21 What factors influence population growth rates? Does the country have modern medicine and hygiene practices?What is the level of the average education?Is the country industrialized and do the people live in urban areas?
22 What is the level of economic development What is the level of economic development? Does the country have a primary, secondary, or tertiary economy?What is the government’s policy toward growth? Are there any restrictions?What role do women play in the society?
24 “You can measure population change through the Birth Rate, the Death Rate, the Fertility Rate, Infant Mortality rate and Life Expectancy.”24
25 1) Where is the CBR the highest. 2) Why is it so low in China 1) Where is the CBR the highest? 2) Why is it so low in China? 3) What can this data tell us about the CBR rate and country development?The Birth Rate is the total number of live births a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.25
26 1) Where is the CDR the highest. 2) Why is it so high in Russia 1) Where is the CDR the highest? 2) Why is it so high in Russia? 3) Why is this map so different from the CBR map?The Death Rate is the total number of deaths a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.26
27 BIRTH AND DEATH RATES World average birthrate is 19.2 per thousand Highest birthrate is in Niger with about 48 per thousandLowest birthrate is in Monaco with 6.85 per thousand
28 1) Where is TFR the highest. 2) Where is it the lowest 1) Where is TFR the highest? 2) Where is it the lowest? 3) What might attribute to these numbers?The Fertility Rate is the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years.28
29 FERTILITY RATESA fertility rate of 2.1 is necessary just to replace the current populationWorldwide average fertilityrate is about 2.56
30 1) Where is IMR the highest. 2) Where is it the lowest 1) Where is IMR the highest? 2) Where is it the lowest? 3) What might attribute to these numbers?The Infant Mortality Rate is the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year compared with total live births.30
31 1) Where is Life Expectancy the highest. 2) Where is it the lowest 1) Where is Life Expectancy the highest? 2) Where is it the lowest? 3) What might attribute to these numbers? 4) Anything surprising?Life Expectancy measures the average number of years a newborn can expect to live at current morbidity levels.31
32 POPULATIONBy 1999 the world’s population hit 6 Billion people (1 billion in early 1800’s)World hit 7 Billion in October 2011World population is increasing at a rapid rateAs the world industrialized, more & better food and improved sanitation methods caused population to soar
33 POPULATIONGeographers use a Population Pyramid to examine how events in society (wars, epidemics, famines) affect the population of a country or region
35 “A population pyramid is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups as well as the sex ratio, the number of males per hundred females and the dependency ratio, the number of people who are too old or too young to work.35
36 What is a population pyramid? Vertical Axis - Age GroupsElderly dependentsWorking populationYoung dependentsHorizontal Axis – Percentage / number
37 How to read a population pyramid? Read the title e.g. country or city or racial groupComment on general shape of the pyramidNote the proportion of people in various age groupsNote the sex ratioInterpret the data
38 Types of Population Pyramid 1. Triangular-shaped2. Beehive-shaped Pyramid3. Rectangular-shaped PyramidShape of pyramids is controlled bybirths,deaths, &migrations.
40 Broad-based Pyramid Title: India, 2000 Shape: Broad Base - high birth ratesNarrow Top - small elderly pop- high death rateProportion: - Large proportion of young- high young dependencyratioSex Ratio: Balance pyramid - Balance sex ratio
44 Beehive-shaped Pyramid Title: Singapore, 2000Shape: Rocket-shaped / Narrow Base– Low Birth Rates, Slow pop growthProportion: Large proportion of workingpopulation, yr old - largegroup of economically active popSex Ratio: Balanced pyramid
47 Rectangular Pyramid Title: Netherlands, 2000 Shape: Rectangular-shaped - Zero Pop GrowthNarrow Base - Low Birth Rates- Life-expectancy is high e.g. 80+- Low death ratesProportion: Bars of equal length - BalanceProportionSex Ratio: Balance pyramid - Balance SexRatio
55 Stage 1 – Pre-industrial society Birth and death rates - very highPopulation Growth - very slowAll human population is believed to have been in this stage until the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th centuryDeath RateBirth RatePopulation
56 Stage 2 Death rates - drop rapidly Birth rates - stays very high improvements in food supply & sanitation, increases life spans and reduce disease.Birth rates - stays very highPopulation Growth – Large, rapid increaseDeath RatePopulation
57 Stage 3 Birth rates - fall Death rates - begin to drop due to access to contraception, increases in wages, urbanization, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women, a reduction in the value of children's work, an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes.Death rates - begin to dropPopulation growth - begins to level off.Population
58 Stage 4 Birth rates & death rates – low Population Growth – level Birth rates may drop to well below replacement level leading to a shrinking population.Population Growth – levelBy the late 20th century, birth rates and death rates in developed countries leveled off at lower rates & some are decreasing
59 Population Growth Stages Stage 1- birthrates and death rates are high, but equal, so little population growthStage 2- decrease in death rate but birth rate remains high, so rapid population growthStage 3- birthrates and death rates are equal, but low, so population grows slowlyStage 4- birthrates and death rates drop to very low level and population is high and stable