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Byzantine Empire and Russia 300-1000 AD.

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Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Empire and Russia 300-1000 AD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Byzantine Empire and Russia AD

2 Map of the Byzantine Empire 550 AD

3 Eastern Roman Empire The city of Constantinople has been known through the ages under a large number of different names. It was first known as Byzantium. The capital of the Eastern Roman empire was moved from Rome to Byzantium in Anatolia. Byzantium was renamed Constantinople after the Roman Emperor Constantine around 330 AD. Constantinople was the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire until around 395 AD when it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

4 Constantinople (Istanbul)
Hagia Sophia

5 Diocletian Divides the Empire
In 284 AD, the emperor Diocletian divided the Roman empire into four administrative districts, one of which was the East.

6 Role of Constantinople
Seat of the Byzantine Empire until Ottoman conquest Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture Center of Trade

7 In 1453 the Ottoman Turkish Empire will conquer the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople will become their capital. The Ottoman Empire will fall after the First World War in 1922.

8 Constantinople Constantinople provided political, economic, and military advantages such as: Protection of the eastern frontier Distance from the Germanic invasions in the western empire Crossroads of trade Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordering a natural harbor

9 It is located on the Bosphorus Strait, and encompasses the natural harbor known as the Golden Horn, in the northwest of the country. It extends both on the European (Thrace) and on the Asian (Anatolia) side of the Bosphorus, and is thereby the only city in the world which is situated on two continents.


11 The Roman Empire was split between into the Western Empire, centering on Rome, and the Eastern Empire, centering on Constantinople. The Western Roman Empire fell in 476 AD. The eastern half will become the Byzantine Empire.

12 Justinian I will become the Byzantine Emperor in 527 AD.
Justinian became universally famous because of his legislative work, remarkable for its sweeping character. In 529 he revised and codified the ancient Roman legal code, a collection of laws that came to be referred to as the "Justinian's Code". This law code will provide the basis for the law code of Western Europe.

13 Jump Who divided the Roman Empire into West and East Rome?
What emperor adopted Christianity? What is the capital of the Byzantine Empire? AND what are two other of it’s names throughout history? Who is Justinian and what did he do? What is the split in the Catholic Church called and what sect has been created?

14 Justinian

15 Justinian Under Justinian the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity. Emperor Justinian influenced the expansion of the Byzantine Empire in the following ways: Codification of Roman Law (impact on European legal codes) Reconquest of former Roman territories Expansion of Trade

16 Justinian Conquered most of Italy and parts of Spain
Established Justinian Code Rebuilt Constantinople’s fortifications Rebuilt Hagia Sophia Enlarged his palace Built Aqueducts, Courts, Schools, and Hospitals Encouraged Trade and Education

17 The Reign of Justinian

18 Women’s Status Empress Theodora

19 Theodora and Court

20 Greek and Roman Culture
Greek and Roman traditions were preserved by the Byzantine Empire. Greek and Roman culture survived with the Byzantine Empire in the following ways: Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West) Greek Orthodoxy Christianity Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries.

21 The Great Schism The Cultural and political differences between the eastern and western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division. The primary causes of the Schism, or break of the Christian Church, were disputes over papal authority— the Western Pope claimed he held authority over the four Eastern patriarchs.

22 The Orthodox Patriarch stated that the Bishop of Rome (i. e
The Orthodox Patriarch stated that the Bishop of Rome (i.e. The Pope) has authority only over his own diocese and does not have any authority outside his diocese. In 1054 each official (the Pope and the Patriarch) excommunicated each other. The Christian Church was divided between the Western Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

23 The Church The Church split in 1054 over: The Liturgy:
Rome (Latin) Constantinople (Greek) Authority of the Pope: Rome (Pope was in charge following the line from Peter) Constantinople (center of power) Practices: Celibacy (accepted in Rome, not in Constantinople) Divorce and Marriage (Constantinople, not Rome) Iconoclastic Controversy: Idol worship? Dispute over the use of icons

24 Eastern and Western Church
Eastern Church Centered in Constantinople Close to the seat of power after Constantinople became capital Used Greek language in Liturgy Western Church Centered in Rome Farther from the seat of power after Constantinople became capital Used Latin in Liturgy

25 11th Century differences between Two Christian Traditions
Roman Catholic Church Services conducted in Latin. The pope has authority over the other bishops. The pope claims authority over all kings and emperors. Priests may not marry. Divorce is not permitted. Eastern Orthodoxy Services are conducted in Greek or local languages. The patriarch and other bishops head the church as a group. The emperor claims authority over the patriarch and other bishops of the empire. Priests may be married. Divorce is allowed under certain conditions.

26 Divisions between Eastern and Western Churches
Authority of the Pope eventually accepted in the West. Authority of the Patriarch accepted in the East. Practices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the West. Differences between the Eastern and Western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division.

27 Greek Orthodox Church inspired Byzantine Art and Architecture
Inspired by Christian religion and imperial power Used Icon (Religious Images) –caused some trouble (Iconoclast) Mosaics in public and religious structures Ex: Hagia Sophia (St. Sophia) a Byzantine domed church

28 Hagia Sophia

29 All of this roof is decorated with Mosaics

30 Mosaics

31 Byzantine civilization and Russia
Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion, culture, and trade. Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea Russia and much of Eastern Europe adopted Orthodoxy Christianity. Russia and Eastern Europe adopted Greek alphabet into the Slavic language because of the missionary work of St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet) Inspired church architecture and religious art

32 St. Cyril and the Cyrillic Alphabet

33 Byzantine and Russia Constantinople close to Kiev

34 1453- Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks
Why Byzantium Fell Street Riots Palace Intrigues Disease The rise of Islam The Crusades

35 These walls of Constantinople fall the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

36 Conquering of Constantinople Istanbul

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