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The History of Islam 570-1258.

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Presentation on theme: "The History of Islam 570-1258."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Islam

2 Background Islam: One of the world’s great religions
Birth place: Middle East on the Arabian Peninsula, Important cities: Mecca and Medina Medina Mecca

3 Founder Muhammed Born in Mecca, AD 570
Raised by uncle, became a trader Married, age 25 to Khadija (AD 595) Age 40, had a vision Told by angel to preach monotheism to Arabians Became the Prophet AD 622, forced to leave Mecca, went to Yathrib (Medina) = Hegira (flight) AD 630, returned and conquered Mecca with an army Dedicated the Kaaba, sacred shrine, to the one God, Allah 632, Muhammed died Islam had spread across entire Arabian Peninsula

4 Beliefs 5 Pillars: Belief in one God, Allah and Muhammed, his prophet
Prayer, 5 times per day Charity Fast during Ramadan Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca **Jihad, struggle for faith Also “Holy War”

5 Beliefs/Practices Other items Islam means “submission”
Muslim is one who “submits” So, the religion is called Islam. A follower of Islam is called a Muslim.

6 Beliefs/Practices Mosque: Islamic place of worship
Unique feature: Minarets: towers, used for “call to prayer”

7 Beliefs/Practices Koran: Islamic holy book
Some similar stories to the Bible Noah, Moses Jesus, a prophet

8 Beliefs/Practices The Kaaba:
Ancient shrine Muslims believe was built by the Prophet Abraham Used to worship “many gods” before Islam.

9 History 661, Islam split into two branches: Spread of Islam:
Sunni: Any devout Muslim could be “Caliph” Shia: Only descendants of Muhammed could be “caliph” Caliph: successor of prophet, leader Ummayyad Dynasty: Abbassid Dynasty: Spread of Islam: 661: All of Middle east 732: Across North Africa After 800’s, even further spread of Islam

10 Spread of Islam

11 Reason for Success Arab armies were united by their beliefs
Warriors who died in service of Islam won a place in paradise Riches to be during conquest of lands Jihad also motivated soldiers Protecting the religion- holy lands or people

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