2 Background Islam: One of the world’s great religions Birth place: Middle East on the Arabian Peninsula,Important cities: Mecca and MedinaMedinaMecca
3 Founder Muhammed Born in Mecca, AD 570 Raised by uncle, became a traderMarried, age 25 to Khadija (AD 595)Age 40, had a visionTold by angel to preach monotheism to ArabiansBecame the ProphetAD 622, forced to leave Mecca, went to Yathrib (Medina) = Hegira (flight)AD 630, returned and conquered Mecca with an armyDedicated the Kaaba, sacred shrine, to the one God, Allah632, Muhammed diedIslam had spread across entire Arabian Peninsula
4 Beliefs 5 Pillars: Belief in one God, Allah and Muhammed, his prophet Prayer, 5 times per dayCharityFast during RamadanHajj, pilgrimage to Mecca**Jihad, struggle for faithAlso “Holy War”
5 Beliefs/Practices Other items Islam means “submission” Muslim is one who “submits”So, the religion is called Islam. A follower of Islam is called a Muslim.
6 Beliefs/Practices Mosque: Islamic place of worship Unique feature: Minarets: towers, used for “call to prayer”
7 Beliefs/Practices Koran: Islamic holy book Some similar stories to the BibleNoah, MosesJesus, a prophet
8 Beliefs/Practices The Kaaba: Ancient shrine Muslims believe was built by the Prophet AbrahamUsed to worship “many gods” before Islam.
9 History 661, Islam split into two branches: Spread of Islam: Sunni: Any devout Muslim could be “Caliph”Shia: Only descendants of Muhammed could be “caliph”Caliph: successor of prophet, leaderUmmayyad Dynasty:Abbassid Dynasty:Spread of Islam:661: All of Middle east732: Across North AfricaAfter 800’s, even further spread of Islam
11 Reason for Success Arab armies were united by their beliefs Warriors who died in service of Islam won a place in paradiseRiches to be during conquest of landsJihad also motivated soldiersProtecting the religion- holy lands or people