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Slides to accompany Weathington, Cunningham & Pittenger (2010), Chapter 2: Ethics and Research 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Slides to accompany Weathington, Cunningham & Pittenger (2010), Chapter 2: Ethics and Research 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slides to accompany Weathington, Cunningham & Pittenger (2010), Chapter 2: Ethics and Research 1

2 Objectives Ethics? Approaches to ethical analysis Making Ethical Decisions The Ethical Code of the American Psychological Association The Institutional Review Board Special situations 2

3 Ethics? Study and application of moral standards Basic moral principles involve: –Focus on the well-being of others –Transcending self-interest and personal goals –Universal truths, constants –Impartiality 3

4 Ethical Code Code of conduct –Accepted rules and regulations –Psychologists follow APA’s code, but most fields of science have a similar code Personal and organizational codes may conflict –You should strive to focus on the moral principles 4

5 Utilitarianism Ethical behavior if positive outcomes > negative ones –Ends justify the means For psychologists and social science researchers: –Results should benefit others (more than the study process will harm subjects) –Best possible methods are being used for data collection 5

6 Utilitarianism Advantages –Rationale for temporary discomfort in research –Common sense view on morality of research Disadvantages –What are the true impacts of a study? –What is the cost of discomfort to participants? –What are true benefits? 6

7 Principle of Rights Emphasizes universal privilege Highlights the ethicalness of intentions Categorical imperative: never treat humanity as a means, but also as an end Basis for APA ethics – ensuring basic rights 7

8 Principle of Rights Advantages –Research procedures must respect dignity of participants –All people are to be treated as equal Disadvantages –Conflicting rights of individuals –Perhaps too absolutist 8

9 APA Ethics Need for a code by late 1940s: –Following WWII, U.S. nuclear experiments, Tuskegee Institute experiments, others… APA’s ethical standards (1970s) –Eventually linked with creation of IRBs through the National Research Act (1974) –Current revisionCurrent revision 9

10 Developing the APA Code of Ethics First code  1953 –Hobbs committee –Critical incidents procedure –Most recent revision (2002) 2002 revision includes 10 general categories of ethical issues –5 general principles + 89 specific standards 10

11 The APA Code of Ethics (cont’d) Five general principles of the APA code: 1)Beneficence and non-malfeasance –Constantly weigh costs & benefits; produce greatest good 2)Fidelity and responsibility –Constantly aware of responsibility to society 3)Integrity –Scrupulously honest 4)Justice –Fair treatment 5)Respect for people’s rights and dignity –Safeguard welfare, protect rights 11

12 Seeking IRB Approval Complexity of process depends on complexity and risks of the study ALL research with humans (and animals) must: –use valid methods –follow legal/ethical standards –be IRB approved 12

13 Seeking IRB Approval Project must meet responsibility and qualification criteria –Responsible for welfare/dignity of participants –Qualified to do the research (students with supervision OK) 13

14 Seeking IRB Approval With humans, voluntary implied consent required Consent forms must: –Be descriptive and clear –Explain confidentiality/anonymity procedures –Provide participants with stated rights and protections inherent in the study 14

15 Special Issues Young participants –If under 18*, or disabled the guardian must give consent Video/audio recording –Need consent and confidentiality promises Deception –By omission or commission requires debriefing + special conditions 15

16 Debriefing Telling participants about the study Helps them understand the importance of their involvement in research Required if deception is used Often left out, but very important 16

17 Ethical Dilemmas in Research For in-class discussions: –Conformity among participants –Eavesdropping for unobtrusive observation –Requiring student participation –Asking questions about sexual behaviors 17

18 What’s Next *Instructor to complete as a heads-up to the students 18

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