Presentation on theme: "Ethics in Social Science Research and Experiments."— Presentation transcript:
Ethics in Social Science Research and Experiments
Task: In small groups of 4, read through the 10 top unethical experiments. http://listverse.com/2008/09/07/top-10- unethical-psychological-experiments/ http://listverse.com/2008/09/07/top-10- unethical-psychological-experiments/ In your groups, create a code of ethics that you believe should be followed while doing social science experiments Examine what was not done in the 10 most unethical experiments as a guide in creating your own code
General Principles: Protecting research participants and honouring trust : should attempt to protect the physical, social and psychological well-being of study participants Anticipating harms : should be sensitive to the possible consequences of the study and work
Rights to confidentiality and anonymity : informants and other research participants should have the right to remain anonymous Fair return for assistance : there should be no economic exploitation of individual informants, translators and research participants; fair return should be made for their help and services Informed Consent: participants need to give their permission to participate in a study and be informed of all of the potential risks
Falsified Data: One of the most serious ethical breaches a researcher can commit is publishing falsified data. If researchers knowingly published a project using falsified data, they might be permanently banished from the academic community. Deception: Intentionally misleading subjects about the nature of the study in which they’re participating.
The American Sociological Association's (ASA's) Code of Ethics sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists' professional responsibilities and conduct Ethics = what actions are acceptable and not acceptable in social sciences principles and standards should be used as guidelines when examining everyday professional activities
maintain the highest levels of competence recognize the limitations of their expertise ; and they undertake tasks for which they are qualified by education, training, or experience consult with other professionals when necessary Principle A: Professional Competence
Principle B: Integrity honest, fair, and respectful of others in their professional activities—in research, teaching, practice, and service do not knowingly act in ways that jeopardize either their own or others' professional welfare
Principle C: Professional and Scientific Responsibility show respect for other sociologists even when they disagree on theoretical, methodological, or personal approaches to professional activities adhere to the highest scientific and professional standards and accept responsibility for their work
Principle D: Respect for People's Rights, Dignity, and Diversity strive to eliminate bias in their professional activities, and they do not tolerate any forms of discrimination based on: age; gender; race; ethnicity; national origin; religion; sexual orientation; disability; health conditions; or marital, domestic, or parental status
Principle E: Social Responsibility They apply and make public their knowledge in order to contribute to the public good. When undertaking research, they strive to advance the science of sociology and to serve the public good.
The American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Guidelines Psychologists are committed to increasing the knowledge of behavior and people’s understanding of themselves and others and to the use of such knowledge to improve the condition of individuals, organizations, and society. Psychologists respect and protect civil and human rights and the freedom of inquiry and expression in research, teaching, and publication. They strive to help the public in developing informed judgments and choices concerning human behavior. In doing so, they perform many roles, such as researcher, educator, diagnostician, therapist, supervisor, consultant, administrator, social interventionist, and expert witness. This Ethics Code provides a common set of principles and standards upon which psychologists build their professional and scientific work.
PRINCIPLE A: BENEFICENCE AND NON-MALEFICENCE Beneficence is action that is done for the benefit of others - to help prevent or remove harms or to improve the situation of others. Non-maleficence means to “do no harm.” must refrain from providing ineffective treatments or acting with malice toward patients many beneficial therapies also have serious risks – the ethical issue is whether the benefits outweigh the burdens.
PRINCIPLE B: FIDELITY AND RESPONSIBILITY establish relationships of trust with those with whom they work uphold professional standards of conduct, accept responsibility for their behavior, and seek to manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm consult and cooperate with other professionals and institutions to the extent needed to serve the best interests of those with whom they work
PRINCIPLE C: INTEGRITY promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness do not steal, cheat, or engage in fraud, or intentional misrepresentation of fact have a serious obligation to consider and accommodate the harmful effects that may arise
PRINCIPLE D: JUSTICE fairness and justice are entitled all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology ensure that their potential biases do not lead to unjust practices
PRINCIPLE E: RESPECT FOR PEOPLE’S RIGHTS AND DIGNITY respect the dignity and worth of all people, and the rights of individuals to privacy and confidentiality are aware of and respect differences (based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and socioeconomic status)