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ETHICAL RESEARCH © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Summarize Milgram’s obedience experiment Discuss the three ethical principles outlined in the Belmont Report: Beneficence autonomy, and justice List the information contained in an informed consent form © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Discuss potential problems obtaining informed consent Describe the purpose of debriefing research participants Contrast the categories of risk involved in research activities © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Summarize the ethical principles in the APA ethics code concerning research with human participants Describe the function of an Institutional Review Board Summarize the ethical principles in the APA ethics code concerning research with animals © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Discuss how potential risks and benefits of research are evaluated Discuss the ethical issue surrounding misrepresentation of research findings © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Study of the phenomenon of obedience to an authority figure Examined the effects of punishment on learning (shock treatment for mistakes) Results challenged beliefs about our ability to resist authority Important for understanding obedience in real life situations such as the Holocaust © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Belmont Report (1979): Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research Beneficence Autonomy (respect for persons) Justice © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Risks in Psychological Research Physical harm Psychological Stress Loss of privacy and confidentiality © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Potential benefits of Psychological Research Educational benefits, new skill, or treatment for a psychological or medical condition Material benefits Personal satisfaction © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Informed Consent Form Autonomy Issues Observational issues and concerns via Internet Information Issues: Withholding Information and Deception What is the cost versus the benefit? Is Deception a Major Ethical Problem in Psychological Research? © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Debriefing Occurs after completion of the study Opportunity for the researcher to deal with issues of withholding information, deception, and potential harmful effects of participation Explains why deception was necessary Provides additional resources, if necessary Makes sure participant leaves the experiment without any ill feelings towards the field of psychology © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Positive aspects of debriefing: Provides an opportunity to explain the purpose of the study and anticipated results Most participants report positive experience Research suggests that it is effective © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Role-Playing Asks participants how they would respond to a certain situation or to predict how others would respond Not considered a satisfactory alternative to deception Simulation Studies Variation on role-playing that involves simulation of a real- world situation Has a high degree of involvement from participants Honest Experiments Participants are made aware of the purpose of the research (e.g., speed dating studies; study skills improvement program) © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972) Justice principle requires researchers to address issues of equity Any decisions to include or exclude certain people from a study must be justified on scientific grounds New research evidence found (Reverby, 2011) © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Implied Contract with Participants Punctuality Summary of Details to Participant Course Credit Details that Maintain Trust Between Participants and Researchers © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Each institution that receives federal funds must have an IRB Responsible for reviewing research at the institution Must have at least 5 members One member must be from outside the institution All research conducted by students, faculty and staff must be reviewed © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exempt Research (no review needed) Research in which there is no risk of harm Minimal Risk Research When the risk of harm is no greater that risk encountered in daily life or routine physical or psychological tests Routine review conducted by the IRB Greater Than Minimal Risk Research Thorough review conducted by the IRB © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
IRB Impact on Research Extended time for approval of study Submissions often need to be revised or clarified Very cautious around approval © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5 General Principles Beneficence Responsibility Integrity Justice Respect for the rights and dignity of others © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10 Ethical Standards Address Specific Issues Concerning: Conduct of psychologists in Teaching Research Therapy Counseling Testing Other professional roles and responsibilities © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8.01 Institutional Approval 8.02 Informed Consent to Research 8.03 Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research 8.04 Client/Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research Participants © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8.05 Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research 8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation 8.07 Deception in Research 8.08 Debriefing © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research APA has developed a more detailed Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals (American Psychological Association, 2002b) © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8.10 Reporting Research Results 8.11 Plagiarism © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chapter 3: Ethical Research. Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority Experiment ( ) [p38]
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