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Chapter 3: Ethical Research. Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority Experiment (1961-1965) [p38]

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: Ethical Research. Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority Experiment (1961-1965) [p38]"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3: Ethical Research

2 Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority Experiment (1961-1965) [p38]

3 Deception Occurs when information is withheld from participants or when participants are intentionally misinformed about an aspect of the research [pp44-46]

4 Deception is justified only when: the study is very important no other methods for conducting research are available deception would not influence the individual’s decision to participate in the research [pp44-46]

5 Debriefing involves: informing participants after the experiment about reasons for the deception discussing any misconceptions removing harmful effects of deception [p47]

6 Debriefing also includes: educating people helping people feel good about their participation educating the researcher about the experience of the participant

7 A merican P sychological A ssociation Ethics Code Beneficience Responsibility Integrity Justice Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity [p53]

8 Beneficence [p39] Doing or producing good Maximize benefits and minimize harmful effects of participation

9 Responsibility Being faithful Accuracy in details

10 Integrity Justice [p50] Adherence to a code of moral, artistic, or other values Conformity to truth, fact, or reason

11 Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity (Autonomy) [p42] Dignity: The state of being worthy, honored, or esteemed

12 Institutional Review Board (IRB) Reviews all research involving human participants [p50]

13 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Reviews research to make sure animals are treated humanely [p57]

14 Risk/benefit ratio A subjective evaluation of the costs and benefits of a research project to participants, society, and the researcher and institution [p39] Relies on consensus of opinion among committee members

15 Assessment of Risks and Benefits [p39] Potential Risks Physical harm Psychological stress Loss of confidentiality and privacy Potential Benefits Direct benefits, such as educational benefit, new skill, or treatment for a psychological or medical problem Material benefits Personal satisfaction Educational Benefit

16 Minimal risk The harm or discomfort participants may experience is not greater than what they might experience in their daily lives or during routine physical or psychological tests [p51]

17 Confidentiality A way to protect participants from social risk [pp41] Maintaining participant confidentiality requires: *removing any identifying information *reporting research results in terms of statistical averages

18 Written informed consent Essential when participants are exposed to more than minimal risk [p42] Individuals unable to provide legal consent must provide their assent. assent = agreement

19 Informed consent A person’s explicitly expressed willingness to participate in a research project based on a clear understanding of: 1. the nature of the research, 2. the consequences of not participating, and 3. all the factors that might be expected to influence that person’s willingness to participate [p42]

20 p43

21 Nuremberg Code, 1948 Adopted by the United Nations after the second World War Originally formulated to guide the conduct of biomedical research; subsequently adopted by the APA

22 Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932- 1972 [p50] A famous case of research misconduct in the United States

23 The Belmont Report, 1979 [p39] Further defined the APA Ethics Code Focused on Beneficience Respect for people Justice

24 Privacy The right of individuals to decide how information about them is communicated to others [p41]

25 Things to consider when deciding whether behavior is public or private Sensitivity of the information Setting of the information Method of dissemination of information [p41]

26 Ethical standards for reporting psychological research include: Giving publication credit Reporting data accurately Being honest (never fabricating data) Citing other’s work properly (plagiarism is forbidden!) [pp59-62]

27 [pp61-62]

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