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Ethics in Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethics in Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethics in Research

2 Participating in Research
How would you have felt if you participated in Dr. Venkman’s study? Should there be guidelines for the appropriate behavior of psychologists?

3 Ethical Guidelines Ethics – people should be treated as ends not means
Designed to protect the rights of human and animals APA ethics code “…it has as its goals the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom the psychologists work…”

4 Ethics Used during all steps of research Measurement
Participant selection Research strategies & designs Treatment of Participants Data analysis Reporting results

5 Ethical Responsibilities
Researcher responsibilities to science to society to students of psychology participants Examples of unethical behaviors fabrication of results harming participants

6 Ethical Issues No harm Psychological or physical
If P is harmed, benefit > cost e.g., an effective treatment with side effects

7 Ethical Issues Informed Consent Information about study
Risks and benefits Voluntary No coercion Withdraw at any time

8 Ethical Issues Consent Form Consent – competent Ps
Ps sign to verify understanding Consent – competent Ps Assent – incompetent Ps guardians e.g., developmentally disabled people

9 Ethical Issues Deception Two Types
Ps do not know true purpose of research Two Types Passive – information is left out e.g., no knowledge of memory test

10 Ethical Issues Active – information is inaccurate
e.g., cover story Confederate - E role-plays. e.g., another P, a random bystander

11 Ethical Issues Debriefing
Purpose of study is explained to Ps upon completion Reduces harmful effects of deception

12 Thought Questions When is it acceptable to use deception in research?
When is it unethical to use deception in research? Does debriefing reduce the harmful effects of deception?

13 Ethical Issues Confidentiality Anonymity
Ps information will be kept secret e.g., memory, opinions, sexual orientation, etc. Anonymity Ps name is not associated with data e.g., Ps are assigned a number

14 Protection of Human Rights - IRB
Institutional Review Board (IRB) Committee who approves research proposals IRB Forms

15 Protection of Human Rights - IRB
IRB Criteria Minimize risk Benefits > Risks Equal opportunity sampling Informed consent Documentation of consent Data monitoring Privacy & Confidentiality

16 Animal Rights Why do we use animals? To understand animals
To understand humans To conduct research that cannot be conducted on humans

17 Animal Rights Animals used in research have rights
Food and shelter Benefits > Costs IACUC – Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Protects the rights of animals Approves research proposals involving animals Forms

18 Scientific Integrity Two issues: Fraud & Plagiarism
Fraud – a conscious misrepresentation of data by a researcher Why? Used to attain publications

19 Scientific Integrity Fraud prevention
Replication – repeat a research study to validate results Peer Review – critical analysis of research by peers in the same area

20 Scientific Integrity Plagiarism – taking credit for another’s work or ideas Avoided by citing the ideas or words of others

21 Application How can you use these ethical guidelines in this class?
Why does understanding how to behave ethically benefit your future careers? How could Dr. Venkman have altered his behavior to meet ethical guidelines?

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