2 Participating in Research How would you have felt if you participated in Dr. Venkman’s study?Should there be guidelines for the appropriate behavior of psychologists?
3 Ethical Guidelines Ethics – people should be treated as ends not means Designed to protect the rights of human and animalsAPA ethics code“…it has as its goals the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom the psychologists work…”
4 Ethics Used during all steps of research Measurement Participant selectionResearch strategies & designsTreatment of ParticipantsData analysisReporting results
5 Ethical Responsibilities Researcher responsibilitiesto scienceto societyto students of psychologyparticipantsExamples of unethical behaviorsfabrication of resultsharming participants
6 Ethical Issues No harm Psychological or physical If P is harmed, benefit > coste.g., an effective treatment with side effects
7 Ethical Issues Informed Consent Information about study Risks and benefitsVoluntaryNo coercionWithdraw at any time
8 Ethical Issues Consent Form Consent – competent Ps Ps sign to verify understandingConsent – competent PsAssent – incompetent Ps guardianse.g., developmentally disabled people
9 Ethical Issues Deception Two Types Ps do not know true purpose of researchTwo TypesPassive – information is left oute.g., no knowledge of memory test
10 Ethical Issues Active – information is inaccurate e.g., cover storyConfederate - E role-plays.e.g., another P, a random bystander
11 Ethical Issues Debriefing Purpose of study is explained to Ps upon completionReduces harmful effects of deception
12 Thought Questions When is it acceptable to use deception in research? When is it unethical to use deception in research?Does debriefing reduce the harmful effects of deception?
13 Ethical Issues Confidentiality Anonymity Ps information will be kept secrete.g., memory, opinions, sexual orientation, etc.AnonymityPs name is not associated with datae.g., Ps are assigned a number
14 Protection of Human Rights - IRB Institutional Review Board (IRB)Committee who approves research proposalsIRB Forms
15 Protection of Human Rights - IRB IRB CriteriaMinimize riskBenefits > RisksEqual opportunity samplingInformed consentDocumentation of consentData monitoringPrivacy & Confidentiality
16 Animal Rights Why do we use animals? To understand animals To understand humansTo conduct research that cannot be conducted on humans
17 Animal Rights Animals used in research have rights Food and shelterBenefits > CostsIACUC – Institutional Animal Care and Use CommitteeProtects the rights of animalsApproves research proposals involving animalsForms
18 Scientific Integrity Two issues: Fraud & Plagiarism Fraud – a conscious misrepresentation of data by a researcherWhy?Used to attain publications
19 Scientific Integrity Fraud prevention Replication – repeat a research study to validate resultsPeer Review – critical analysis of research by peers in the same area
20 Scientific IntegrityPlagiarism – taking credit for another’s work or ideasAvoided by citing the ideas or words of others
21 Application How can you use these ethical guidelines in this class? Why does understanding how to behave ethically benefit your future careers?How could Dr. Venkman have altered his behavior to meet ethical guidelines?