THE CLASSICAL ERA
THE CLASSICAL STYLE WAS A COMPLETE CHANGE FROM THE BAROQUE STYLE
Also referred to as Age of Enlightenment or Age of Reason. Described as elegant, formal, and restrained. Instrumental music more important than vocal music Stressed balance and clarity of structure.
Classical Music: Needed to be understood by everyone, not just the wealthy. Needed to be universal, meaning it could communicate to people everywhere. Tempo and dynamic changes were gradual; not sudden.
Classical Orchestra: Orchestra was similar to today’s orchestra in the instruments used but smaller in size. Strings: Violin, Viola, Cello, & String Bass Woodwinds: Flutes, Oboes, & Clarinets Brass: Trumpets & Trombones Percussion: Drums, Cymbals, & Timpani Piano: Replaced harpsichord Organ: Still widely used
Classical Music Forms:
Symphony: 4 movement composition for orchestra. Opera: Drama that is sung, and acted out. Oratorio: Choral drama that is sung, but not acted out. Sonata: 3 movement instrumental solo. Concerto: Piece for solo instrument and orchestra. Rondo: Form where main theme (A) throughout; ABACADA
THE THREE MOST POPULAR FORMS OF MUSIC IN THE CLASSICAL PERIOD WERE SONATAS, SYMPHONIES, AND STRING QUARTETS
A SONATA IS A PIECE OF MUSIC FOR ONE OR TWO INSTRUMENTS
A SONATA IS A PIECE OF MUSIC FOR ONE OR TWO INSTRUMENTS. SONATA MEANS “SOUNDED”
A SYMPHONY IS A PIECE OF MUSIC WRITTEN FOR A LARGE ORCHESTRA
The Classical Orchestra
Approximately 30 string violin, cello, and viola players Also, 2 players each for the oboe, flute, bassoon, horns, trumpets, kettledrums, and clarinet Beethoven often increased this demand for instruments and also added extra ones like the piccolo and trombone.
A STRING QUARTET IS A PIECE WRITTEN FOR FOUR STRING INSTRUMENTS
A STRING QUARTET IS A PIECE WRITTEN FOR FOUR STRING INSTRUMENTS. VIOLIN/VIOLA/CELLO/DOUBLE BASS
THREE BIG COMPOSERS OF THE TIME WERE HAYDN, MOZART, AND BEETHOVEN.
HADYN WORKED AS A ROYAL COURT MUSICIAN AND AS A SERVANT
HADYN WORKED AS A ROYAL COURT MUSICIAN AND AS A SERVANT. FATHER OF THE SYMPHONY WROTE 104
Franz Joseph Haydn: Born in Rohrau, Austria in 1732
Died in Vienna, Austria in 1809 Sang in church boychoir Age 17- Made living playing harpsichord and violin Age 19- Composed first Catholic mass Age 23- Composed first string quartet Age 27- Composed first symphony
Franz Joseph Haydn: Age 29- Employed as by Austrian Prince Esterhazy (choirmaster and court musician) Worked for Esterhazy family for 29 years. His nickname was Papa Haydn. Age 60’s- Haydn’s health began to fail. During last 10 years of life, he wrote little music, but attended many concerts.
Haydn’s Contact with other composers:
Beethoven was Haydn’s student Age 49- met Mozart (age 25); Haydn stated he was not influenced by any other composer except Mozart. Met Handel (age 59), and found his oratorios inspiring.
Famous Haydn Pieces: Surprise Symphony
Emperor’s Hymn (This became the National Anthem of Austria.) The Creation (Oratorio) The Seasons (Oratorio)
HADYN COMPOSED MANY SYMPHONIES INCLUDING THE SURPRISE SYMPHONY.
MOZART, ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS COMPOSERS LIVED DURING THIS TIME
MOZART, ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS COMPOSERS LIVED DURING THIS TIME. HE WROTE OVER 600 PIECES IN HIS SHORT 35 YEAR LIFE.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart:
Born in Salzburg, Austria in 1756 Died in Vienna, Austria in 1791 Known as a musical prodigy (genius) His father, Leopold, was also a musician Age 4- Play clavier (keyboard) Age 5- Began composing Age 6- Could play harpsichord and violin; toured Europe performing concerts for royalty and wealthy aristocrats.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart:
Age 8- Wrote a symphony Age 11- Wrote an oratorio Age 12- Wrote an opera By early teens, he had composed more music than most famous composers. One of Mozart’s friends was Johann Christian Bach, son of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart:
Age 25- Became music teacher. Age 31- Became the private musician to Emperor of Vienna. Influenced by the music of Haydn. Could play a piece of music correctly after hearing one time. Age 35- Died a very poor, overworked musical genius Buried in an unmarked pauper’s grave in Austria
Mozart’s Music: Symphonies Operas Concertos Oratorios Choral Works
Wrote more than 600 musical works including: Symphonies Operas Concertos Oratorios Choral Works Solo works
Mozart’s Famous Pieces:
Symphony No. 40 Marriage of Figaro (Opera) Magic Flute (Opera) Don Giovanni (Opera) Requiem in D Minor (a requiem is mass for the dead)
BEETHOVEN WAS ANOTHER COMPOSER OF THIS TIME
BEETHOVEN WAS ANOTHER COMPOSER OF THIS TIME. AT THE AGE OF 31, HE STARTED TO LOSE HIS HEARING.
Died in Vienna, Austria in 1827 His father was an alcoholic.
Ludwig van Beethoven: Born in Bonn, Germany in 1770 Died in Vienna, Austria in 1827 His father was an alcoholic.
Age 4- Began piano lessons Age 8- Concert pianist
Ludwig van Beethoven: Age 4- Began piano lessons Age 8- Concert pianist Age 11- Assistant church organist
Took music and composition lessons from Haydn.
Ludwig van Beethoven: Age 16- Played for Mozart Took music and composition lessons from Haydn. Age 29, he began to lose hearing.
By age 44, he stopped playing in public due to deafness.
Ludwig van Beethoven: By age 44, he stopped playing in public due to deafness. He continued to compose and conduct despite deafness
Beethoven’s early works (before 1800) were in the Classical style.
Ludwig van Beethoven: Beethoven’s early works (before 1800) were in the Classical style. However, his later works (after 1800) were in the Romantic style.
Ludwig van Beethoven: Because of this, Beethoven is often called a musical bridge between the Classical and Romantic Periods.
BEETHOVEN WROTE 9 SYMPHONIES. HIS TWO MOST FAMOUS ARE THE 5TH AND 9TH.
THE MUSICAL PENDULUM STARTED TO SWING BACK TO EMOTIONAL AND FLOWERY MUSIC WHICH WAS THE DOWNFALL OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD.
THE CLASSICAL PERIOD GAVE WAY TO THE ROMANTIC PERIOD.
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