2 Definition of TenseTENSE indicates the time of action or state of being indicated by the verb.English has 6 tenses3 basic tenses3 perfect tenseEach tense also has progressive formEach tense is used to express time in a specific way
4 Basic tenses - Why do I use them? Present: an action or state of being that is occurring right now at the present ANDto show a habitual action or state of beingI walk to school every day.to state a general truthTwo plus two equals four.to summarize literary action.In Chapter 3, Nick meets Gatsby.to express basic future timeSchool ends in June.Past: an action or state of being that occurred at a definite point in the past AND did not continue into the present.Future: an action or state of being that will occur; usually formed with helping verb will or shall + the base form.
5 Basic Tenses: How do I use them? PersonPresent (Base)PastFuture1st person singular: Iwalkwalkedwill walk2nd person singular: you3rd person singular: he, she, or itwalks1st person plural: we2nd person plural: you3rd person plural: they
6 Three Perfect Tenses Past Present Future Past Perfect Present Perfect Future Perfect
7 Perfect tenses - Why do I use them? Present perfect: expresses an action or state of being that occurred at an indefinite time in the past OR an action that began in the past and continues into the present.formed: have/has + past participleShe has visited New York several times.I have walked to school since freshman year.Past perfect: expresses an action or a state of being that ended BEFORE another past action.formed: had + past participleMr. Smith had driven a taxi before he became a teacher.Future perfect: expresses an action or state of being that will end before another future actionformed: will or shall + have/has + past participle.By the time you receive this postcard, I will have returned home from my vacation.
8 How do I form perfect tenses? PersonPresent PerfectPast PerfectFuture Perfect1st person singular: Ihave walkedhad walkedwill have walked2nd person singular: you3rd person singular: he, she, or ithas walked1st person plural: we2nd person plural: you3rd person plural: they
9 Remember in Slide #2, I referred to a progressive form? The progressive form is used to express continuing action or state of beingWalk ==> walking (present participle)present progressive: am/are/is + present participlepast progressive: was/were + present participlefuture progressive: will/shall + be + present participlepresent perfect progressive: have/has + been + present participlepast perfect progressive: had + been + present participlefuture perfect progressive: will/shall + have/has + been + present participle
10 Consistency of Tense Do not change tense unnecessarily. When describing events that occur at the same time, use verbs in the same tense.When describing events that occur at different times, use verbs in different tenses to help indicate the sequence of events.
11 What about these helping verbs (called modals)? CAN and COULD --> indicate ability to do somethingMAY --> expresses permission or possibilityMIGHT --> also expresses possibility, but less likely than MAYMUST --> indicates a requirement or an explanationOUGHT --> expresses an obligation or likelihoodSHOULD --> indicates a recommendation, an obligation, or a possibilityWOULD --> expresses the conditional form of a verb;used with IFfuture timea repeated action in the pastan invitation or offera polite request