Presentation on theme: "USING VERBS Language Network – Chapter 6. THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB Each verb has four principal parts: the present, the present participle, the."— Presentation transcript:
THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB Each verb has four principal parts: the present, the present participle, the past, and the past participle. The following are based on the verb “to look”: Present – look Present Participle – (is) looking Past – looked Past Participle – (has) looked Some verbs are irregular, such as “to break”: Present – break Present Participle – (is) breaking Past – broke Past Participle – (has) broken
REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS Regular VerbsIrregular Verbs Regular verbs will use the present form to create the other principal parts of the verb. Present Participle (is) look + ing Past Look + ed Past Participle (has) look + ed Irregular verbs have different forms for the past and/or past participle. See pages 131-132 in Language Network for a list of common irregular verbs and their forms.
FORMING VERB TENSES Verb tense shows the time of an action or a condition. They are formed from the verb’s principal parts. There are three verb tenses: Simple Tenses Perfect Tenses Progressive Tenses
SIMPLE TENSES The present tense shows that an action or condition Occurs regularly or is generally true: Good stories transport us across time and space. Is occurring in the present: I have the new book by Stephen King. Occurs regularly: Every night, I read several chapters of this chilling tale. The past tense shows that an action or condition occurred in the past: King published Carrie, his first novel, in 1974. The future tense shows that an action or condition will occur in the future: I will lend you King’s new book next week.
PERFECT TENSES The present perfect tense shows that an action or condition Was completed at one or more indefinite times in the past: King has published several books under the pen name of Richard Bachman. Began in the past and continues in the present: King has written more than 30 novels in the last 30 years. The present perfect tense is formed by using have/has + past participle. The past perfect tense shows that an action or a condition in the past preceded another past action or condition: King had written two novels that were rejected by publishers before he published Carrie. The past perfect tense is formed by using had + past participle. The future perfect tense shows that an action or a condition in the future will precede another future action or condition: By next summer, I will have read half of King’s books. The future perfect tense is formed by using will (shall) have + past participle.
PROGRESSIVE FORM The progressive form of a verb expresses an event in progress. Each tense has a progressive form, made by using the corresponding tense of the verb to be with the present participle. Present Progressive Tense: I am reading this horror story. Use am/are/is + present participle. Past Progressive Tense: A group of friends were camping in the Maine woods. Use was/were + present participle. Future Progressive Tense: You will be learning until the end of the school day. Use will (shall) be + present participle. Progressive forms can also be used with perfect tenses, such as: You shall have been sitting for 50 minutes by the time the bell rings. (future perfect progressive).
USING VERB TENSES When writing, you will use different verb tenses to describe single events and ongoing actions that are related. Verb tenses allow you to show how a series of events are related in time. The following verb tenses can be used: Simple Tense Progressive Form Perfect Tense Perfect Progressive Form
PRESENT TENSES Simple Present I talk. Shows an action or a condition that is continuously true. Present Progressive I am talking. Shows action that is now in progress. Present Perfect I have talked. Shows an action or a condition that began in the past and continues into the present. Present Perfect Progressive I have been talking. Shows an action that began in the past and is still in progress.
PAST TENSES Simple Past I talked. Shows actions that were completed in the past. Past Progressive I was talking. Shows actions that continued over time in the past. Past Perfect I had talked. Shows an action in the past that came before other actions in the past. Past Perfect Progressive I had been talking. Shows an action that was in progress in the past when another action happened.
FUTURE TENSES Simple Future I will talk. Shows a condition that will occur in the future. Future Progressive I will be talking. Shows an action that will be in progress in the future. Future Perfect I will have talked. Shows an action in the future that will occur before another action. Future Perfect Progressive I will have been talking. Shows an action in progress in the future when another action will happen.
SHIFTS IN TENSE In some situations, you may need to shift tenses within a sentence. You can shift from a progressive form to a simple form to describe an ongoing action interrupted by a single event. I was talking when my brother interrupted me. When you describe an event as a point of reference for another event, shift from a perfect tense to a simple tense. I had been talking for a few moments before I realized that no one was listening. Avoid shifting from present to past, past to present, etc.
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE Active VoicePassive Voice When a verb’s subject performs the action expressed by the verb. I threw the football to my friend. When a verb’s subject receives the action expressed by the verb. The football was thrown to my friend by me. Passive voice will use a form of “to be” and the preposition “by.”
THE MOOD OF A VERB Indicative Mood makes statements and asks questions. I like to watch movies. Where are my glasses? Imperative Mood makes a request or gives a command. The subject (you) is omitted. Run a lap around the track. Subjunctive Mood expresses a wish or states a condition that is contrary to fact. You will use the word were instead of was. I wish I were smarter. Subjunctive Mood can also give a command. Use the base form of a verb. The school requires that all students be in first period by 8 A.M.