2 The present perfect tense 1- it can describe actions or situations that occurred in an unspecified time in the past. 2- it also refers to repeated actions in the past. Have/has + past participle 1- I’ve been to Madrid. 2- My brother has visited Spain many times. Page: 141 for long and short forms
3 Adverbs with present perfect Ever: at any time (have ever been to NY?)Already: before now. (have you started work already? ) (yes, I have already started work.)Just: recent past (I’ve just started work)Never: not at any time ( I’ve never worked here before)Yet: up to now (have you started work yet?) ( I haven’t started work yet)Still : ( I still haven’t started work)
4 The present perfect continuous This tense describes actions or situations that began in the past and have continued to the present.Have/has + been+ verb(ing)Have you been working in the garden all day?She has been working for the company since 1982My boss has been working here for ten years.Page: 153
5 With non-action verbs use the present perfect. Live, work, and study can be used with both tenses with little difference in meaning.I’ve worked in this company for five years.I’ve been working in this company for five years.
6 The past perfect tenseIt refers to an activity or situation completed before another event or time in the past.It is more common in written English than in spoken English.Jack had arrived to work long before 8:30.Had his boss arrived by 9:30?