Presentation on theme: "AuxiliariesAuxiliaries. Auxiliaries A verb used to add a functional or grammatical meaning to a clause in which it appears. Functions in a supporting."— Presentation transcript:
Auxiliaries A verb used to add a functional or grammatical meaning to a clause in which it appears. Functions in a supporting capacity. Used together with the main verb to give additional information. Used to express tense, mood, or voice. Form a closed class
Types of Auxiliaries Auxiliaries are divide into two types 1.Primary Auxiliaries 2.Modals
Primary Auxiliaries Be, Do and Have are primary auxiliaries. They have further forms i.e. Be has is, are, was, were, been, being, am. Do has does, did, do. Have has have, has, had and having. Modals Modals never change forms e.g. Can, could, shall, should, must, ought to, will, would, may, might etc.
Types of Auxiliaries in a Verb Group In a verb group, auxiliaries are divided into following: Tense Modal Perfect aspect Progressive aspect Passive voice
Perfect Aspect A verb construction that describes events occurring in the past but linked to a later time, usually the present. The perfect aspect is formed with has, have or had + the past participle (also known as the -en form).verbaspectpast participle-en form The perfect aspect is expressed with the auxiliary “have” and “en” form Depending on the time of the action, we use the past (had), present (have, has). Examples of the perfect aspect: I've lived here for ten years. (from 10 years ago until now).
Progressive Aspect A verb phrase made with the form be plus –ing that indicates an action or condition continuing in the present, past and future. Also known as continuous form. Describes something that takes place during limited period of time.
Modal Verbs A verb that combines with another verb to indicate mood or tense. Expresses necessity, uncertainty, ability or permission. Examples: can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will and would. Other verbs like need, dare, used to and invariant be may also function as modal.
Tense A grammar term used to indicate whether a sentence (or verb) in action is past, present and future. Future is not considered tense but indicated in other ways i.e. by use of auxiliaries. Tenses affects form of lexical verb. Examples: Kip plays football. Kip played football.
Passive Voice Voice refers to whether a sentence is active or passive. The places of subject and object are inter-changed in passive voice. Third form of verb is used. Example: Active: James killed the snake. Passive: The snake was killed by James.
Conclusion Arrangement of elements in a verb group is as follows: 1. Tense or Modal + Infinitive 2. Perfect: have + -en 3. Progressive: be + -ing 4. Passive: be + -en and than the lexical verb.